Saturday, December 31, 2011

THE PROBLEM IN MARKETS SOLVE BY VARIOUS TYPES OF WAYS

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MARKET FAILURE


In practice, there are many problem and markets sometimes fail to meet our needs. Market failure arises in a number of ways. We use the term Market Failure to cover all the circumstances in which equilibrium in free unregulated markets (i.e. markets not subject to direct price or quantity regulation by the government) will fail to achieve an efficient allocation (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, pg65). In economics terms freedom of enterprise will tend to produce inequality of wealth, because some people will be more talented, innovative, work harder, etc, than others. They will make profits where others fail. This means that individuals purchasing power, and hence the share of resources, which they can command, will be unequal. Therefore, we must be alert to ¡®market failures¡¯ in situations in which marketers attempts to solve problem may make them worse or cause other problems. Below are the possible sources of distortions that lead to market failure.


Imperfect Competition


One serious deviation from perfect competition comes from imperfect competition or monopoly elements. Recall how strict is the economist¡¯s definition of a ¡°perfect competitor.¡± The mere presence of a few rivals is not enough for perfect competition. Rather, perfect competition in a market arises when there is a sufficient number of firms or degree of rivalry such that no one firm can affect the price of that good. An imperfect competitor is one whose actions can affect a good¡¯s price (Varian, 1, pg 10). In reality, then almost all business owners, except possibly the millions of farmers who individually produce a negligible fraction of the total crop, are imperfect competitors. At the extreme of imperfect competition is the monopolist- a single supplier who determines the prices of a particular good by himself (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, pg55). It is also perfect competition that leads firms to set marginal cost equal to price and thus to marginal consumer benefit. Under imperfect competition, producers set marginal cost equal to marginal revenue, which is less than the price at which the unit had sold. Since consumers equate price to marginal benefits derived from the last unit, in general marginal benefit will exceed marginal cost in imperfectly competitive industries. Such industries will tend to produce too little. Expanding output would add more to consumer benefit than it would to production costs or the opportunity cost of the resources used (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, pg65).


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Externalities


A second way is which an unregulated market mechanism may lead to an inefficient outcome arises when there are spillovers or externalities. An externality arises whenever an individual¡¯s production or consumption decision directly affects the production or consumption of others other than through market prices (Ali, 1,pg8). Externalities are things like pollution, noise, and congestion. What they have in common is that one person¡¯s actions have direct costs or benefits for others people, which that individual does not take into, account. Much of the remainder is devoted to analyzing this distortion. The problem arises because there is neither a market nor a market price to ensure that the marginal cost of that noise to other people (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000,pg65). Suppose a chemical firm discharges waste into a lake, pollution the water and directly imposing an additional production cost on anglers (fewer and smaller fish, which are harder to catch) or a consumption cost on swimmers (less pleasant swimming and a dirty beach). If there is none ¡®market¡¯ for pollution, the firm can pollute the lake without cost. Its self ¨Cinterest will lead it to pollute until the marginal benefit of polluting (a cheaper production process for chemicals) equals its own marginal cost of polluting, which is zero. It takes no account of the marginal cost its pollution composes on angels and swimmers (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, pg66). In this case, there is a divergence between the individual¡¯s comparison of marginal costs and benefits and society¡¯s comparison of marginal costs and benefits. Free markets cannot induce people to take account of these indirect effects on other people if there is no market in these indirect effects.


The things that Externalities can done


Markets work well when the price of good equals society¡¯s cost of producing that good and when the value of the good to the buyer is equal to the benefit of the good to society. However, the costs and benefits are sometimes not fully reflected in market prices. Consider the problem of pollution. A firm produces chemicals and discharges the waste in to a lake. The discharges pollute the local water supply, kill fish and birds, and create an offensive smell. These adverse side effects represent costs to society of producing the chemical, and should accordingly be reflected in its market price, but they may not be. Unless the chemical company is charged for the damages caused by its pollution, the market price of its output will understate the true cost of production to society. There is an externality in the production of the chemical (Begg, Fischer, Dornbursch, 000, pg66). Externalities are not all negative. The homeowner who repaints her house provides spillover benefits for the neighbors; they no longer have to look at a dilapidated house. In all externalities, there exists something that affects firms¡¯ cost or consumers¡¯ welfare (such as pollution or views of newly painted houses) but is not traded in a market. Economists often say that ¡®missing markets¡¯ causes externalities.


When externalities are present, market prices do not reflect all the social costs and benefits of the production of a good. Government intervention may improve the functioning of the company, for example by requiring firms to treat their waste products in certain ways before dumping them. Since externalities involve missing markets, they can also be handled in principle by market-type solutions. The government might charge firms (an estimate of) the damages their pollution cases, or might permit a certain amount of total pollution and allow firms to buy and sell rights to pollute. Externalities can provide the justification for a number of government activities besides pollution control (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, pg48). Examples range from control of broadcasting (interference is an externality) to various restrictions on land use.


Public goods


It is possible to prevent firms from dumping wastes by imposing regulations; it is much more difficult for government to encourage the production of public goods. These are the economic activities with conveying large or small benefits to the community that cannot efficiently be left to private enterprise. Important examples of production of public goods are the maintenance of national defense and of internal law and order, the building of a highway network, and the support of pure science and public health. Private provision of these public goods will not occur because the benefits of the goods are so widely dispersed across the population that no single firm or consumer has an economic incentive to provide them. Therefore, private provision of public goods will generally be insufficient; government must step in to provide public goods. In buying public goods like national defense or lighthouses, government is behaving exactly like any other large spender. By casting sufficient dollar votes in certain directions, it causes resources to flow there. The price system then takes over and ensures that the government-purchased lighthouses or fighter aircraft are produced (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch,000, pg66).


Taxes


Government must find the revenues to pay for its public goods and for income-redistribution programs. Such revenues come from taxes levied on incomes, wages, consumer sales, and similar items. Moreover, taxes are raised a t all levels of government likes city, state, and federal. Taxes differ from other uses of our incomes in one important respect everyone is subject to the tax laws; we are all forced to contribute our share of payments to the government. It is true that the citizenry as a whole imposes that tax burden on itself, and surely, we would agree that each citizen has the right to his or her share of the public goods produced by government. However, the close connection between spending and consumption that we see for private goods does not hold for taxes and public goods (Harvey, 1,pg6). Eric buy a hamburger or a wool sweater only if Eric want one, but Eric must pay my share of the taxes used to finance defense, space research, and public education even if Eric don¡¯t care a bit for these activities.


LIST OF REFERENCING


1. Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch, 000, Economics, 6th edn, The McGraw-HILL Publications, United Kingdom.


. Ali. H., 1, Comprehensive Economics Guide, nd edn, Oxford University Publications, Singapore.


. Harvey .J, 1, Modern Economics, 6th edu, The MACMILLAN Publications, Great Britain.


4. Tucker Irvin.B, 001, Economics for today, rd edu, South-Western Thomson Publications, United States of America.





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The hyksos and others

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The Hyksos


During this time of weak and divided rule, a group of foreigners moved into the delta area from Palestine- Bradley


Egyptians called them Hikau-khoswet (rulers of foreign lands)


Hyksos were militarily stronger; fighting advantage came from the use of horse drawn war chariots, unfamiliar to the Egyptians. Provided greater mobility and striking power.


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Other military advantages included


Superior weapons such as bronze swords, scimitars and daggers


Powerful composite bows- far greater striking distance


Scaled armour and war helmets


Fortified camps


According to Wilson in the culture of ancient Egypt, the Hyksos invasion of Egypt was a great national humiliation.


Humiliation felt is reflected in the lack of contemporary official records


Different views


Later kings, eg- Manetho, an Egyptian priest in the third century BC, recorded that the Hyksos, ‘Burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods and treated all the natives with cruel hostility’


It appears that the Hyksos weren’t ruthless barbarians and uncouth savages described by later Egyptians writers.


The Hyksos kings appear to have


- Adopted the traditional titles of the kings and even used Egyptian names


- Included Egyptian officials in their administration


- Sponsored the production of typically Egyptian works of art


- Modelled their official religion on that of the Egyptians. Their Asiatic god, Baul, seems to have been assimilated with Seth, the Egyptian god of Avaris. The kings honoured Re by including him as part of their throne names. (Apophis took the throne name Aweserre)


- Introduced many new processes and products like; use of bronze rather than copper and the greater use of silver in works of art, improved methods of spinning and weaving using a lighter loom, new musical instruments like the lute, oboe and tambourine, olive and pomegranate trees.


The Hyksos’ occupation was the catalyst needed for the transformation of the Egyptian state- Bradley


For thousands of years the Egyptians, isolated in their fertile valley, had felt safe from the outside world but, with their conquest by the Hyksos, they lost once and for all their feelings of security- Bradley


Mercenary troops from Nubia, known as the Medjay, became indispensable to the Egyptian kings in their military campaigns over the next few centuries.


The first phase in the war of liberation


- pieces of evidence suggest that it might have been King Seqenenre Tao who first came into conflict with the Hyksos king Apophis


1. The head of the mummy of the King Seqenenre Tao is covered with wounds that suggest he died on the battlefield. There is a dagger wound behind one ear, his nose and cheek were smashed by a mace- like weapon and the bone above his forehead was apparently cut through with a battle-axe of Palestinian origin.


. A later folk story relates how king Apophis sent an insulting letter to Seqenenre Tao, complaining that the hippopotamuses of Thebes were keeping him awake in Avaris. What he meant by this is not known but it probably had some mythological connotation. The hippopotamus was an animal sacred to the god Seth whom Apophis worshipped.


King Kamose of Thebes


Kamose According to Wilson, the culture of ancient Egypt, successfully launched the war of revenge against the Hyksos.


From the fragments of two-stellae set up by King Kamose at Thebes, we know that he began a campaign against the Hyksos in the third year of his reign. At this time, Nubian princes, allied with the Hyksos, ruled Nubia that formerly had been a part of Egypt.


Resentment against the foreigners is apparent in the following extract.


Let me understand what this strength of mine is for! There is one prince in Avaris, another in Nubia, and here I sit associated with an Asiatic and a Negro1 Each man has his slice of this Egypt, dividing up the land with me. I cannot pass by him as far as Memphis, the waters of Egypt, but behold he has Hermopolis. No man can settle down, being despoiled by the demands of the Asiatics. I will grapple with him, so that I may cut open his belly… My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatics- Kamose


King Ahmose- the expulsion of the Hyksos


King Ahmose was cited by Manetho as the first ruler of the 18th dynasty and has been ‘hailed by posterity as the father of the new kingdom’- Lichtheim


King Ahmose’s regent was Queen Ahhotep


King Ahmose liberated Egypt from the Hyksos- Bradley


His military successes were recorded in the tomb biography of the marine ahmose, son of Ebana. He was from the town Nekheb (El-Kab). He took part in ahmose’s attack on the Hyksos stronghold of Avaris and accompanied the king on his campaigns into Palestine and Nubia.


The tomb has invaluable information on the defeat and expulsion of the Hyksos.


According to this source, King ahmose conducted a series of campaigns against the Hyksos capital, before it eventually fell to his troops. Ahmose then drove the Hyksos out of Egypt and campaigned in southern Palestine as far as the city of Sharuhen.


According to Breasted, he is believed to have laid siege to the city for approximately six years, after which it was destroyed. � ‘Pharaoh besieged Sharuhen, and in the 6th year his majesty took it’- David, the ancient Egyptians.


The tomb inscriptions of Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet, another El-Kab noble in the service of king Ahmose, indicate that after the siege of Sharuhen, the king pushed the Hyksos further north into Syria.


After the successes of defeating the Hyksos then defeating the ruling prince in Nubia the king was ‘joyous with the might of victory, for he had conquered Southerners and Northerners’-Hayes


By expelling the Hyksos Ahmose ended over a century of foreign rule in Egypt and took the first step towards restoring unity and peace to the country. Once again Egypt was ruled by one strong pharaoh- Bradley


In return for his military victories, Ahmose dedicated many splendid gifts to the god Amun-Re. A stela found at Karnak provides details of the


‘Offering tables of gold, jars of pink granite filled with ointment’- Hayes


An ebony harp, silver sphinxes, a cedar barge and other precious items presented to the Theban god.


Ahmose also added cedar and limestone features to the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak and Luxor as well as to the temple of ptah at Memphis.


King Ahmose and his queen/sister, built her a chapel at Abydos as part of his cenotaph complex-Bradley


This was to honour his grandmother, Tetisheri. ‘Because he so greatly loved her, beyond anything’- Breasted


This complex comprised of a temple and pyramid, a small temple dedicated to his wife, Ahmose Nefertari, his grandmother’s shrine, rock-cut cenotaph and a set of terraces built against the desert cliffs. Recent excavations have located fragments decorated with battle scenes- ‘bridled horses, once harnessed to chariots, arches firing bows and Asiatics, with their characteristics beards and long-sleeved garments, fallen in battle’-Breasted.


These fragments show the earliest known representation of horses in Egypt and almost certainly depict the expulsion of the Hyksos.


Queen Ahmose Nefertari


King Ahmose was married to his sister Queen Ahmose Nefertari.


It is believed that they had 6 or 7 children. Amenhotep was the eventual successor.


‘Of all the queens of the new kingdom, Ahmose Nefertari had the greatest religious status. This was associated with the rise to pre-eminence of the god Amun-Re at the time of her husband’s reign’-Bradley


Stela found at Karnak- that early in her life she had been granted the title of second prophet of Amun. Her husband then further honoured Nefertari with the title God’s Wife of Amun. The title carried with it enormous status.


She was assisted by high-ranking women known as the superior of the harem and adorer of the god and a group of court women (chantresses and musicians) who formed part of the harem of Amun.


The significance of the Hyksos occupation and the war of liberation


…The Hyksos domination provided the Egyptians with the incentive and the means towards world expansion and so laid the foundations and to a great extent determined the character of the new kingdom, or, as it is often called the Empire- Breasted


The Hyksos occupation of Egypt had undermined the Egyptians’ false sense of security and feelings of superiority and introduced them to new religious beliefs, artistic styles and processes that influenced their way of life and culture.


By adopting the foreigners’ war chariot and bronze weapons, the native rulers of Thebes were able to free Egypt. Once liberated, the Egyptians took steps to ensure the safety of their country from future invasion, by campaigning beyond the borders of Egypt into Palestine and Nubia. These were the first steps taken towards establishing an empire. -Bradley


Egypt was no longer isolated and before long began to play ‘a full part in the developments of the eastern Mediterranean’-Breasted





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Friday, December 30, 2011

change management

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The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate competency in searching and


reviewing the available research literature for a chosen nursing intervention. The rationale for choosing the particular nursing intervention will be given, then a short explanation of what evidence based practice is and why it is so important in nursing will be offered. The method involved in accessing the databases and carrying out the literature search will then be explained. Three articles will be chosen from the larger body of research evidence found in the literature search, and a critical appraisal of each one will be provided, highlighting the results and how they affect practice. Discussion will then be offered regarding any barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing today, and why it is problematic.


The nursing intervention chosen for the purpose of this assignment is the bedside hand-over. This subject has been chosen for the focus of the assignment as during a surgical placement this method of handing over the report between shifts was implemented. It was wondered how the patients themselves felt about it and whether they thought that it lacked confidentiality. I wanted to access the research literature to see for myself whether or not it was best practice based on evidence. Also was there any evidence to suggest that the patients suffered as a result of it?


The term ‘evidence based practice’ has only been in use since the early 10’s when different disciplines noticed that practice was not being based on the best evidence available. There was a switch towards promoting evidence-based practice from then on in the form of education, training initiatives, publications, policy directives and debate (Le May 1). Once the term was in use, definitions were offered such as the one from Sackett et al (16) which proposed that evidence based medicine was the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. This definition includes the term best evidence, which has always been emphasised as coming from research (Long 16, in Le May 1). However Le May (1) acknowledges that best evidence can come in the form of evidence based on experiences, theory that is not research based, evidence gathered from clients or their carers and evidence passed on by role models and experts. He also suggests that to enable us to base our practice on evidence we need to consider how we can put the definition into operation. This can be done through a series of stages which are; deciding what we want to find evidence about, accessing the evidence, appraising the evidence, using the best available evidence and evaluating the impact of the evidence. Only when each of these steps is successfully completed, will practice become evidence based.


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The Department of Health (16) and the NHS Executive (18) have highlighted how important it is for clinical effectiveness to be underpinned by evidence based practice. This clinically effective care can benefit the patients, nurses and the NHS with reduced time wasted on inappropriate treatments, increased consistency of care, increased understanding of investigations and treatments, increased confidence in practitioners and increased value for money. These benefits also apply to nurses as well as the other major benefit that the accountable nurses have evidence on which to base their practice which would stand up in a court of law should any problems arise.


In order to access research articles on the chosen topic of bedside hand-over it was necessary to do a literature search. Literature searches can be done manually by using the OPAC system and reading through journals in the library, or can be carried out online using the internet to link to a medical data base where articles can be accessed from a home computer. In this instance the online search was carried out using the OVID database. The database consists of a selection of different journal sites such as MEDLINE and CINAHL. To initiate the search, a specific site was selected. It was decided for this search that each database site would be visited using the same search criteria working down the list of sites. The keyword entered into the search box was bedside hand-over. The MEDLINE databases came up with no hits for this search, so keeping the same keyword phrase the database was changed and the same search was carried out. This was repeated for each of the different databases, and the results of the search were saved. The nursing databases came up with most citations; this is understandable as the subject of bedside hand-over is a nursing one rather than a medical one. Some of the citations did not match exactly the criteria I was looking for. Abstracts were read from those that did match the criteria and the best most applicable ones were printed out. Once this process was completed it was repeated using the term bedside reporting and then nursing hand-over. The nursing sites offer full text of their journals, so it was possible to print out the ones that were of most interest to read in detail. From the search three articles were chosen for appraisal.


The articles were chosen because they had very similar titles. Two of the articles were qualitative and one was quantitative which was interesting as they were researching the same subject of patient perceptions of the bedside hand-over.





The first article to be appraised is by Cahill (18) is a piece of qualitative research, which was published in the Journal of Clinical Nursing. The study clearly states the aim of the research, which is to describe and provide an analysis of the perceptions of the bedside hand-over. The researchers were trying to find out more about patient perceptions of the bedside hand-over as they found that there was very little research on this subject.


Qualitative methodology is a suitable approach for this study as it seeks to illuminate which elements; patients express either satisfaction or dissatisfaction with. The research design employed the grounded theory method of data collection and analysis (Glaser & Strauss 167), the advantage being that it allowed the complexity of the bedside hand-over in a surgical care setting and the richness of such an everyday life practice to be captured.


Theoretical sampling was employed for this study i.e. specific sampling decisions evolved during the research process. The sample was not predetermined before embarking on the study. Ten informants were recruited for the study but there was no discussion of the type of patients they were. As with the appraisal of article three, there is the issue of gender, age, race and social class, all of which can have an effect on the validity and reliability of the results.


The data from the study was collected in the form of unstructured in-depth interviews using open and closed questions. The interviews were tape-recorded and a method known as constant comparative analysis was used to generate the grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss 167). Good description was given as to what this method of analysis entailed and how many themes emerged. However no steps seemed to have been taken to test the credibility of the findings. As Woodgate & Kristjanson (16, in Parahoo 17) suggest, help could have been enlisted from others to read the transcripts in order to ensure rigour and validate their results. During this study the author has made no comment on the possibility that his own potential bias and influence may have an effect on the results. It was brought to the reader’s attention that the setting for the study was a surgical ward. Data was collected there from the sample population one day before discharge after having had the interview agenda explained. Previous to this ethical considerations had been addressed including anonymity and the chance to opt out at any time.


From the original transcripts ten themes quickly emerged, then after more careful analysis these themes were broken down into six, then finally three categories of findings which were discussed in detail. There was no clear statement of findings but they appeared to be embedded in the discussion of each of the three categories of patient perceptions. The author states that no definite conclusions can be drawn from this study as it is no more than the beginnings of a more comprehensive grounded theory study. However it does support findings from earlier work of other researchers and it does highlight some important points for consideration. These are that the staff maintained professional dominance over the patients. The patients in the study stated that although they wanted to be involved in the hand-over they felt that they were unable to converse with the large volume of staff. This was because they felt that they did not have enough knowledge about the medical jargon used, their illness or the nursing care that should be carried out.





The second article to be appraised is a piece of quantitative research in the form of a survey. It was carried out by Timonen (000) and was published in the Journal of Clinical Nursing. The study addresses three research questions and gives a good outline of the content of the study. The research questions were, ‘what is the aim of bedside reporting, how actively do patients participate in bedside reporting by taking part in conversation and what factors promote or prevent patient participation?


A literature review had been carried out prior to the study, which referenced many other studies on the subject of patient hand-over. However, no acknowledgement was made by the author to suggest that the survey had been commissioned by a particular agency or group. From this review the author noted that there was a need for a more generalised insight into both nurse’s and patient’s opinions of bedside reporting.


Good description was given of the design of the study, which was in the form of a questionnaire. A sample of both nurses and patients received the same questionnaires in order to compare their views. Different sets of questions were related to each of the research questions and responses used a four point Likert scale for attitudinal statements. The alternatives strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree were combined for the analysis. The results were displayed as frequencies and the chi-square test was used to test for significant differences between the groups.


The sample was selected by purposefully choosing six hospitals. A total of eight wards were chosen for the research, four abdominal-surgical and four orthopaedic wards were included, all of which were found to be using the bedside hand-over method of reporting. For patients on these wards to be accepted for the study they had to be over eighteen years old, be able to fill in the questionnaire and have been involved in a bedside hand-over at least once. These people are part of a captive population and as such become volunteers in a convenience sample. Parahoo (17) suggests that this is the weakest form of sampling. He states that the researcher should question whether or not the participants really volunteered, or whether they felt they had to take part due to moral obligation, gratitude for the care they were receiving or for fear of being labelled uncooperative. 146 nurses and 18 patients were given the questionnaire and an 81% response rate was received from both groups. Polit & Hungler (15) have stated ‘the larger the sample the more representative of the population it is likely to be’. Details were given as to the gender and age of the patients but not the nurses; also the care setting was described i.e. how many patients shared a ward or whether they were in single rooms etc. However, there was no mention of social class or race, which could have an effect on the results, for instance there is a good probability that patients from an upper class white background will answer the questionnaires differently to Ethnic minorities from the lower end of the social class scale.


The researchers suggested that the question of validity had been addressed by ensuring that patients were aware of what they had been asked to comment on and that they had understood bedside reporting. The authors accepted that the reliability may be questioned because the sample was one of convenience and it was not known how the sick patients would have assessed the bedside hand-over as they had been excluded from the study.


Statistical significance results in this study are poor. The p value was used when showing results for some of the questions but not for others. Discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the study was included in the article but the results could have been documented in a way that was easier for the reader to pick them out rather than having to read through pages of text to see what the results were. The conclusion led on from the results and summarised very loosely what they had shown, however it did not appear from reading the article that the original three research questions had actually been answered. The results stated that all of the nurses in the study saw bedside reporting as a source of information for both nurses and patients but only 64% of patients agreed. Nurses felt that communication with patients was more interactive than the patients did; the nurses felt that they encouraged the patients to participate in the hand-over whereas the patients felt that this was not the case.


The third article by Greaves (1) is a piece of qualitative research, which was published in the Nursing Standard. The paper states that the aim of the research is to explore how patients perceive the practice of nurses handing over care at their bedside. However the author did not state why the research was carried out or what the relevance of it was.


The qualitative method seems appropriate as a research design as it ensures that the research is focused on the perspectives of the participants, allowing them to talk about their feelings towards bedside hand-over. Parse et al (185) state that because a qualitative approach to research identifies the perspectives of the research participants and uncovers their characteristics and experiences.


It is not clear from this piece of research where the sample population was chosen from or how they were chosen. It simply said that patients who had a history of frequent admission to hospital were chosen but there was no mention of whether the sample was random, volunteer or convenience. Four groups of people were excluded from the sample. These were, patients awaiting transfer to another ward, dysphasic patients, withdrawn patients and those patients who spoke English only as their second language. The final sample, because of constraints on time consisted of only four patients forcing the research to become nothing more than a pilot study. The research did not include any description of the type of care setting the sample was from i.e. the type of ward. Also there was no description of the demographic variables of the sample population, and this could have an effect on their experiences i.e. race, gender, age and social class (Parahoo 17).


Explanation was offered as to the method of data collection, which consisted of semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim; however it was not clear where the interviews had taken place or how long each one had lasted.


The research gives brief description of how the data analysis was carried out. Significant statements from the transcripts relating to hand-over were coded and themed into ten categories. The logic of this process was not brought to the reader’s attention, but the credibility and validity of the findings were tested by means of an independent colleague also coding the transcripts, the results of which were that he also identified similar themes. Although ten main categories were addressed there is no mention as to whether other information brought up at the interview were taken into account and included in the findings.


The article included a token sentence stating that the study received approval from the ethics committee and that patients could withdraw at any time. It stated that at each stage of the study, issues of validity, reliability and bias were considered but there was no proof of this being the case. So how reliable are the results?


The findings are clearly stated and easy to understand, they suggest that patients like the bedside hand-over although they feel the need to be involved and be talked to, rather that talked about. The patients did not appear to be worried about confidentiality as they stated that they spoke to each other about their illnesses anyway.


From this research it would be wrong to assume that the findings were generalisable and that bedside hand-over should be implemented everywhere. Patients in this particular research setting may have liked this method of hand-over but others may not. For instance if you work on a gynaecology ward it would not be sensible to base your practice on research that was carried out on a geriatric ward, therefore it would have been helpful for the setting of the study to be described.


The author does state that more research needs to be carried out and that due to the small sample and selection of informants used it is not possible to generalise the findings of the study to other areas and it only serves as a pilot study.


From these appraisals offered it appears evident that the results of these studies are less than reliable. Some are better that others and do have good points. However for a study to be worthy of having its findings implemented into practice it has to be carried out with the utmost care and attention covering every research issue.


Although it would be unwise to take the results of these studies at face value there are many other pieces of good research worth implementing. Unfortunately a lot of it is not being used. There are many suggested reasons put forward by several writers why this may be the case, including the way research is encoded, transmitted, received, interpreted and accepted by nurses (Brown 15). Barriers to the utilisation and implementation of research in nursing are increasingly being researched and written about in order to find out reasons why the best research evidence is not always put into practice. Nelson (15) suggests that a lack of a positive research culture within the wards and units plays a part in why research evidence is not integrated into clinical practice. Pearcey (15) has similar views blaming it on lack of knowledge about how to access and critique research papers. Whereas Retsas (000) suggested that the greatest barrier was the lack of organisational support in relation to providing time to use and conduct research. Many nurses who were trained before research became popular, may not have the skills necessary to utilise the available evidence. As Clark (187) states, ‘they lack research awareness’, which hopefully will not be a problem for the nurses of tomorrow.





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Series of Unfortunate Event

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Hi my name is Joe. I got a wife and three kids, I work in a button factory. One day my boss came to me and said Joe, are you busy? I said no. Hi my name is Bob. I got three sons and one wife, I work in the pants factory. One evening my mom came to me and said Bob, how are you today? I replied I am fine. Howdy my name is George. I got a wife and eight daughters, my friend, Henry, works in a candy factory. One day his boss came to me and said George, what do you think about Henrys personalities? I replied Hes a nice guy in my point of view. After several more questions, Henrys boss goes home. The next afternoon all the main characters meet. They talk about making a factory of there own. All of them decided to make a toy factory. After several month, the factory is finish. The factory is call Toy For the Unforunate Kids. The business went well. They were gaining more and more and even more cash as the time passes. At one morning George thinks he deserves more money than the other owner, so he thinks up an evil plan. His plan is to murder the other owners so that he gets full share of the whole business. The outcome was pretty shocking for George. The other owners know of his evil plan, causing them to hire bodyguard which protects the owners from harm. The comclusion is that George got sent to jail and the other owners get a fifty-fifty percent share.


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Thursday, December 29, 2011

native son vs. raisin in the sun

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The Native Son, by Richard Wright, and Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry, express similar themes through the characters Bigger and Walter. The different ways they pursue their dreams, face society, and deal their living conditions lead to different resolutions; the improvement of the life of Walter and the downfall of Bigger. In Raisin in the Sun, Walter and his family deal with their issues together as a unit. On the other hand, in The Native Son, Bigger deals with all his problems by himself, so he fails. In Walter’s case, his “ dream deferred” “crust[s] and sugar[s] over” because his family helps him. Differently, Bigger’s “dream deferred” is like a bomb because it “explode[s]” killing him and the people around him (Hughes).


Walter and Bigger both have to cope with their living conditions. They are both living in Chicago with little money. In each of their houses there are holes in the rug because they do not have the money to mend them. The difference between Walter’s situation and Bigger’s situation is that he is the only one who earns money in his house besides his mother. This puts a lot of pressure on Bigger to support the household because all the Thomas possess is a “quarter” (1). On the other hand, Walter has Bennie, Mama, and Ruth to help him support the family, so he is not alone in his toils. Walter and Bigger want to have more money in their possession. Walter says that money “is life” because people need money to do everything (74). The difference between the two is that Walter wants to make his money legally, through investments, while Bigger wants to make his money whichever way that is easiest. Bigger plans to send a ransom note to the Daltons’ instead of just working to make his money. Because of his illegal actions, Bigger ends up facing a severe punishment when he is caught. Walter and Bigger do not have the opportunity to get a higher-level education also. The only blacks that are able to go to college are the blacks that are born rich. George from Raisin in the Son is the only black person in the two books that attended college. Bennie wants to go to college, but because Walter loses her money she will not be able to. Also, Bigger does not live at home with his family after gets a job as a chauffeur. This is a problem for Bigger because the Daltons are white. His refusal to rob Blum’s store shows he is scared of white people because they hold higher social standings than him. The way he acts clearly shows that he is “afraid of” robbing Blum’s (). This leads to him becoming irrational and extremely violent. After Gus challenges Bigger, Bigger becomes upset because his cowardice is revealed. He contemplates stabbing and hurting Gus “for making him feel this way” (7). Because of his anger and frustration he ends up killing Mary in his moment of panic. On the contrary, when Walter comes home from work depressed his family tries to help him out. His mother does things for him, like giving him some of her money that he wants because she knows it will make him happy. Bigger does not have this kind support at home. It can then be deduced that Bigger and Walter have similar living conditions, but Walter deals with his much better than Bigger does.


Society creates many problems for Walter and Bigger. White people are the opressive people in the time period the books take place in. They like being at the top of the social ladder and want to keep it that way. In Raisin in the Sun, Linder tries to buy the house that the Youngers have bought because he knows that if the Youngers move in to his neighborhood, there will be problems. He says to Walter “What do you think you are going gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren’t wanted” (11). Linder is talking about how there have been recent bombings in neighborhoods with white and black people. White people do not want any black people into their neighborhoods because soon more black people will move in. Similarly, the Thomas’ tenant, Mr. Dalton rents apartment rooms out selectively. He rents out his more disheveled apartments in the poorer section of the city out to blacks only. He does not let blacks move into any other apartments. Walter and Bigger are both presented with opportunities to exploit this. Linder offers to buy the Youngers’ house at a “financial gain to the family” (118). If Walter accepts this offer, he would be admitting that he is not good enough to move into that neighborhood because he is black. He does not sell his house though because he does not let white society control him like that. Similarly, all the white people around Bigger see him as dumb because he is black. The police’s interrogator does not initially press Bigger a lot for information because it is thought that Bigger does not have any. Because of this, Bigger has an opportunity to exploit them. He takes this opportunity by sending a ransom note to the Daltons demanding money. He thinks that no one will expect him to be the one to send the note, because to whites he is just like “all other colored folks” (14). Because Bigger tries to be more “white” by playing games with the whites, he ended up getting caught and sentenced to death. Bigger and Walter are both unable to get decent jobs because white people will not hire them. The most both of them become are chauffeurs. This causes much anxiety for Walter and Bigger. It creates a drive in both of them to get money at any cost. Bigger is willing to go out and to rob stores to get money. Similarly in The Native Son Walter gives away all of his money and Bennie’s money to Willy Harris because he is so desperate to make money. His family forgives him because he only was dealing with blacks. On the other hand, Bigger is punished because he deals with whites. He is only charged with the murder of Mary at his trial. He is not charged with the murder of Bessie because she is black and therefore insignificant. Bigger and Walter are different because Bigger assimilates himself into white society, while Walter does not.


In pursuit of their dreams, Walter and Bigger face many complications. Both Walter and Bigger have dreams that they cannot attain. They both want money and to fly and be free. Both Bigger and Walter detest their jobs as chauffeurs because it is like being a slave. Bigger wants to be an airplane pilot instead of a chauffeur. This symbolizes him wanting to be lifted off the ground and into the air. It is clear that Walter wants to fly because he sings about having wings. He sings “I got wings” after Mama gives him the money because he wants to show that he appreciates the opportunity he is given (1). He is grateful because money is an opportunity for him to invest in a business. Without opportunity, Walter is so miserable that his marriage with Ruth starts to sour. Mama says to Walter that she has “seen [her] family falling apart today” (4). Out of concern for her child Mama decides to give Walter the money. However, Bigger gets no such aid from his friends or family. Everything he does to try to make money he does himself. Since he is facing all his obstacles in pursuit of his dream by himself, he turns to drastic measures to try to obtain money. When Bigger is with his gang he tries to steal money from white people like Old Blum. Also, he tries to get money by sending a ransom note to the Daltons’. Bigger receives the death penalty at the end of the novel because of his uncontrollable anger. He thinks Bessie will jeopardize his chance to get money so he resorts to killing her. Both Walter and Bigger have to deal with their own frustration. They are both frustrated because they do not have enough power over there own lives. Walter wants the money from Mama to get the power he needs. She gives it to him, showing that she supports him, and says he is “the head of the family from now on” (107). . After he receives the money and the position of head of the household, he becomes satisfied. On the other hand, Bigger wants power over the white people who oppress him. He decides he wants to gain that power by exploiting Dalton through a ransom note. Bigger loses in his struggle for power though, because he is alone. Walter and Bigger both fail to achieve their dreams of wealth, but Walter ends up being well off because his family supports him in achieving his dreams.


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Walter and Bigger both have dreams that are pursued, but not achieved. Walter’s life ends up improving though because he has the support of his family, he sticks to the old morals of his father, and he does not let white society scare him into submission. Walter is more under control in Raisin in the Sun because of these things. Bigger on the other hand; does not have the support of the family, he becomes an assimilationist by playing white games, and he lets white society scare him into rash actions. Bigger is unable to control his actions or his emotions. He breaks down in moments of panic and just gets himself into more trouble. He does not look at things logically like Walter does. Walter plays by the rules of society while Bigger tries to bend them. In the end of Raisin in the Sun, Walter still ends up having things he wants. The Youngers still move into the house they want so desperately. Also, Walter is the head of his household, so he is happy. Bigger on the other hand, lost his life and ended up with nothing. Both of these works show how brutal the 10’s were for black people. The Native Son shows how a black person falls against society and A Raisin In the Sun shows how a black person survives against society. Walter ended up improving his life while Bigger ended up dead because of the way they dealt with their hardships.





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goobo

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The “dream deferred” is like a bomb because it “explode[s]” killing him and the people around him (Hughes).has Bennie, Mama, and Ruth to help him support the family, so he is not alone in his toils. Walter and Bigger want to have more money in their possession. Walter says that money “is life” because people need money to do everything (74). The difference between the two is that Walter wants to make his money legally, through investments, . Walter and Bigger do not have the opportunity to asdfdget a higher-level education also. The only blacks that are able to go to college are the blacks that are born rich. George from Raisin in the Son is the only black person in the two books that attended college. Bennie wants to go to college, but because Walter loses her money she will not be able to. Aasdfasdflso, Bigger does not live at home with his family dsafasdfafter gets a job as a chauffeur. This is a problem for Bigger because the Daltons are white. His refusal to rob Blum’s store shows he is scared of white people because sdfaschallenges Bigger, Bigger becomes upset because his cowardice is revealed. He contemplates stabbing and hurting Gus “for making him feel this way” (7). Because of his anger and frustration he ends up killing Mary in his moment of panic. On the contrary, when Walter comes home from work depressed his family tries to help him out. His mother does things for him, like giving him some of her money that he wants because she knows it will make him happy. Bigger does not have this kind support at home. It can then be deduced that Bigger and Walter have similar living conditions, but Walter deals with his much better than Bigger does.


Society creates many problems for Walter and Bigger. White people are the opressive people in the time period the books take place in. They like being at the top of the social ladder and want to keep it that way. In Raisin in the Sun, Linder tries to buy the house that the Youngers have bought because he knows that if the Youngers move in to his neighborhood, there will be problems. He says to Walter “What do you think you are going gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren’t wanted” (11). Linder is talking about how there have been recent bombings in neighborhoods with white and black people. White people do not want any black people into their neighborhoods because soon more black people will move in. Similarly, the Thomas’ tenant, Mr. Dalton rents apartment rooms out selectively. He rents out his more disheveled apartments in the poorer section of the city out to blacks only. He does not let blacks move into any other apartments. Walter and Bigger are both presented with opportunities to exploit this. Linder offers to buy the Youngers’ house at a “financial gain to the family” (118). If Walter accepts this offer, he would be admitting that he is not good enough to move into that neighborhood because he is black. He does not sell his house though because he does not let white society control him like that. Similarly, all the white people around Bigger see him as dumb because he is black. The police’s interrogator does not initially press Bigger a lot for information because it is thought that Bigger does not have any. Because of this, Bigger has an opportunity to exploit them. He takes this opportunity by sending a ransom note to the Daltons demanding money. He thinks that no one will expect him to be the one to send the note, because to whites he is just like “all other colored folks” (14). Because Bigger tries to be more “white” by playing games with the whites, he ended up getting caught and sentenced to death. Bigger and Walter are both unable to get decent jobs because white people will not hire them. The most both of them become are chauffeurs. This causes much anxiety for Walter and Bigger. It creates a drive in both of them to get money at any cost. Bigger is willing to go out and to rob stores to get money. Similarly in The Native Son Walter gives away all of his money and Bennie’s money to Willy Harris because he is so desperate to make money. His family forgives him because he only was dealing with blacks. On the other hand, Bigger is punished because he deals with whites. He is only charged with the murder of Mary at his trial. He is not charged with the murder of Bessie because she is black and therefore insignificant. Bigger and Walter are different because Bigger assimilates himself into white society, while Walter does not.


In pursuit of their dreams, Walter and Bigger face many complications. Both Walter and Bigger have dreams that they cannot attain. They both want money and to fly and be free. Both Bigger and Walter detest their jobs as chauffeurs because it is like being a slave. Bigger wants to be an airplane pilot instead of a chauffeur. This symbolizes him wanting to be lifted off the ground and into the air. It is clear that Walter wants to fly because he sings about having wings. He sings “I got wings” after Mama gives him the money because he wants to show that he appreciates the opportunity he is given (1). He is grateful because money is an opportunity for him to invest in a business. Without opportunity, Walter is so miserable that his marriage with Ruth starts to sour. Mama says to Walter that she has “seen [her] family falling apart today” (4). Out of concern for her child Mama decides to give Walter the money. However, Bigger gets no such aid from his friends or family. Everything he does to try to make money he does himself. Since he is facing all his obstacles in pursuit of his dream by himself, he turns to drastic measures to try to obtain money. When Bigger is with his gang he tries to steal money from white people like Old Blum. Also, he tries to get money by sending a ransom note to the Daltons’. Bigger receives the death penalty at the end of the novel because of his uncontrollable anger. He thinks Bessie will jeopardize his chance to get money so he resorts to killing her. Both Walter and Bigger have to deal with their own frustration. They are both frustrated because they do not have enough power over there own lives. Walter wants the money from Mama to get the power he needs. She gives it to him, showing that she supports him, and says he is “the head of the family from now on” (107). . After he receives the money and the position of head of the household, he becomes satisfied. On the other hand, Bigger wants power over the white people who oppress him. He decides he wants to gain that power by exploiting Dalton through a ransom note. Bigger loses in his struggle for power though, because he is alone. Walter and Bigger both fail to achieve their dreams of wealth, but Walter ends up being well off because his family supports him in achieving his dreams.


Walter and Bigger both have dreams that are pursued, but not achieved. Walter’s life ends up improving though because he has the support of his family, he sticks to the old morals of his father, and he does not let white society scare him into submission. Walter is more under control in Raisin in the Sun because of these things. Bigger on the other hand; does not have the support of the family, he becomes an assimilationist by playing white games, and he lets white society scare him into rash actions. Bigger is unable to control his actions or his emotions. He breaks down in moments of panic and just gets himself into more trouble. He does not look at things logically like Walter does. Walter plays by the rules of society while Bigger tries to bend them. In the end of Raisin in the Sun, Walter still ends up having things he wants. The Youngers still move into the house they want so desperately. Also, Walter is the head of his household, so he is happy. Bigger on the other hand, lost his life and ended up with nothing. Both of these works show how brutal the 10’s were for black people. The Native Son shows how a black person falls against society and A Raisin In the Sun shows how a black person survives against society. Walter ended up improving his life while Bigger ended up dead because of the way they dealt with their hardships.


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Please note that this sample paper on goobo is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on goobo, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on goobo will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from LivePaperHelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Subliminal Perception

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The History of Subliminal Messages


Mind Control The Root of Subliminal Messages


Subliminal messages are linked to the idea of mind control, and the roots of this are placed very far back in our history. Mind control is where an individual or group of individuals can be controlled without their awareness. It is perception below the threshold of the individual or group (Key, The Age of Manipulation). The implementation of mind control techniques brought about the idea that people can be made to do things they would not ordinarily do.


Since at least the 5th century B.C., the early Greeks used the science of rhetoric as a way of influencing people (The Age of Manipulation). By infusing pieces of mind-persuading data into sentences, people can manipulate others by the language they use. If a person sees or hears certain bits of information (i.e. words, fragments, or sentences) placed strategically, they can be persuaded one way or another (without perhaps knowing). Based on experimental findings in social psychology and the way in which we process information, the effectiveness of subliminal perception has been continually examined throughout history. Subliminal messaging and mind control persists to be under scrutiny--whether it is capable of doing what it intends to do to the targeted person.


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10s Radio


We have reason to believe that subliminal messaging is effective based on findings in historical contexts. An example of auditory subliminal messaging dates back to the 10s when the BBC began broadcasting on radio for the first time. The people of the era thought the radio was so sinister, they considered it to be the voice of the devil. The BBC wanted to change this attitude, so they placed certain phrases using backward masking in their jingles. This may be an example of subliminal messages being used to persuade an entire nation to respond in a way they would not normally respond. A radio jingle was aired, which sounded completely innocent, but when played backwards it reveals a different purpose. The words, this is not a noose, no really its not, can clearly be heard (from Subliminal Messages and Backmasking). The BBC believed the subconscious could pick up backward messages in ordinary speech. The BBC is obviously still around today, so perhaps this jingle actually did serve its deeper purpose!


At the Movies


Research on the subject dates back to the late 1800s. Public concern about subliminal manipulation can be seen in 157 when a marketing researcher looked into statistical data. James Vicary claimed to have found dramatic increases in the sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn when he flashed the phrases Drink Coca-Cola and Eat popcorn for 1/000 of a second during a movie. The statistics showed an increase in popcorn sales by 58% and an 18% increase in Coca-Cola sales. This is the shocking information that led to an enormous response from the public. Individuals as well as legislators imagined possible effects of subliminal perception on the future--a world where everyone was subliminally manipulated to do what perhaps the government wanted them to do. In reality though, research on the effects of subliminal messages has shown little overall effects in controlled conditions. There is no evidence based in real-world settings done by top researchers on influencing behavior. Also, in 16, Vicary stated that the study was a fabrication and the evidence now suggests it was. He never released a detailed description of his study and there was never any independent evidence to support what he claimed (Packard, The Hidden Persuaders).


Govt Interest


Throughout history, we have looked to political and governmental institutions to examine whether mind control and subliminal perception has been used amongst the general public. The CIA, form example, is one branch of government thought to use this technique in order to gain its authority over large bodies of people.


The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) received complaints of a television station using subliminal messages in 174. This was the first new case since the original in the 150s. The FCC responded by issuing a public notice, which stated their official positionWe believe that the use of subliminal perception is inconsistent with the obligations of a [broadcast] licensee, and therefore we take this occasion to make clear that broadcasts employing such techniques are contrary to the public interest. Whether effective or not, such broadcasts clearly are intended to be deceptive (see the legal issues of this site for the FCCs updated statement).


Studies


In the 170s, controlled studies were conducted by the British psychologist Anthony Marcel. The experiments were based on previous findings indicating that a decision regarding a stimulus is primed when the stimulus follows a related stimulus. An experiment using an observer asked to classify a letter string as either a word (juice, lawyer) or a non-word (eciuj, reywal) was used. A letter string such as the word lawyer will be classified as a word faster when it follows a semantically related word (judge) than when it follows a non-related word (juice). Marcel found words that primed subsequent conditions made it difficult, if not impossible for the observers to distinguish when the words were present from when the words were absent. There have been many other experiments and studies done since Marcels time to confirm his findings, but they have used other stimuli as well (such as pictures, faces, and spoken words). These other stimuli do prime or facilitate the following decisions when they are presented in an atmosphere that makes it hard to distinguish one stimulus from another stimulus. The belief is that the substantial information is perceived even when observers have little or no awareness of perceiving as shown by their difficulty in discriminating one stimulus from another stimulus.


17-001


In 17 there were subliminal anti-theft messages from the music of Musak. It was shown to decrease theft (internal inventory shrinkage as well) by 7%. Now, whether this was actually due to the words in the music or to other sources no one can be sure (Subliminal Messages and Backmasking).


In recent years, the term subliminal perception has been made more general to describe any situation in which unnoticed stimuli are perceived. Subliminal messages can be seen in our advertisements if we look hard enough. Does this mean we are really influenced by subliminal messages? Do we buy certain cars because the rhetoric used enhances our desire to? Do we buy products because the ad in a magazine persuades us underneath our threshold of perception? Do we drink certain brands of soda because of product placement in movies that we perhaps do not notice? Do we recycle because the cast members in primetime television do, but we do not consciously see this while tuning in? These are questions to ponder while searching through our web site of Subliminal Messages.


Definition


sub- limen


Subliminal is a two part word consisting of the prefix sub- and the root word limen. Sub- means below and limen (Greek) means threshold. Thus subliminal comes to mean below threshold. But what is a threshold?


threshold


According to Schmed, and the vast majority of psychologists studying subliminal phenomena, a threshold is the point at which a stimulus is perceived 50% of the time. For example, if my aural threshold were to be tested, I would be played numerous sounds in varying volumes. To signal that I heard the tone�I perceived the stimulus�I would raise my hand or press a button, whatever the researches had instructed me to do when I hear a sound. By controlling and tracking the frequency of the emitted sound, the researchers are able to find the volume at which I hear a sound�perceive the stimulus�half of the time. This point is my auditory threshold.


Conflicts


thresholds


Though a working definition of threshold is necessary before any research can be conducted on subliminal messages,


Thresholds not only allow for research on subliminal messages, they also confuse the matter. Though defined in a professional and statistical manner, there are several pertinent details concerning thresholds making research even more difficult


Already known from other areas of research is the fact that we do receive information in our lower brain that never makes it to the cortex. The cortex is where things are “made conscious”. This is where sensory perception comes in to play. “We are a walking mass of thresholds.” It is estimated that for every 1,000,000 stimuli that pass by the sensory threshold, 1 stimulus passes through the perceptual threshold. This is how the intricacies of human behavior are explained. Humans simply do too much to be conscious of it all.


Vary day by day, person by person


1. Not only do thresholds vary from person to person, but they also vary day by day within one person. So what I can’t hear today I may hear tomorrow and vice versa. It is quite plausible that these variances are accounted for in the statistical analysis. There are safety features, if you will, built into the processing of data (one example being “statistical significance”)


Threshold becomes ‘perceptual threshold’


. Psychologists have more or less massaged the theory of thresholds so that subliminal messages could “exist” and be “studied”. By this I mean that there has been a distinctive breaking of threshold into two parts sensory threshold and perceptual threshold. It is the perceptual threshold that is utilized in the realm of subliminal messages.


Arbitrary manipulation of threshold so that ‘subliminal message/perception’ can ‘exist’/be studied.


Distinguish between sensory threshold and perceptual threshold


attention


created methodology


Theories


Eagle’s personality traits most open to suggestion


Meaning vs Method


If congruent to beliefs it is likely unopposed thus unnoticed/’subliminal’


If against, it is likely to be ‘wrestled with in ones mind’


Key is suggestion, not subliminal nature of suggestion


Visual


Blind sight


Series of nothings form to something


Masking


Audio


Yes gender


No question/statement


No similar themes


Visual


What isn’t there cant be seen Must present target alone at some point


Forced guess


7% hit when guessing


Are subliminal messages legal?


In Australia and Britain, the use of subliminal advertising has been banned with severe consequences for those who disobey the strict laws. In the United States, not much is being done from a legal standpoint to curn the use of subliminal messages. The Federal Communications Commission, however, will now revoke a companys broadcast license if the use of subliminal techniques is proven. The following is from the FCCs Manual for Broadcasters


We sometimes receive complaints regarding the alleged use of subliminal techniques in radio and TV programming. Subliminal programming is designed to be perceived on a subconscious level only. Regardless of whether it is effective, the use of subliminal perception is inconsistent with a stations obligation to serve the public interest because the broadcast is intended to be deceptive. (Federal Communications Commission Record, 001)


Since most subliminal messages, however, are indiscernible on the conscious level (take a look at some of them in the examples section of this website), it takes a difficult and costly effort to find them in the first place. Keep reading to learn about a famous case of subliminal messages in the court room.


The Judas Priest Trial


Judas Priest is a British heavy metal rock band-one of the first bands of the genre. Their popularity peaked in the mid-seventies, and in 178 they produced an album called Stained Glass. It is because of that album, and an alleged subliminal phrase hidden in the song Better by You, Better than Me, that the band had to go through extensive trial proceedings that lasted over a year.


The hidden phrase was, apparently, do it. In isolation, this phrase has little meaning unless there is some antecedent to which the it refers. But, according to the parents of the two teenage Judas Priest fans who attempted suicide in 185, a hidden do it can have much more serious implications.


In Reno, Nevada, in the summer of 18, the boys parents took Judas Priest to trial, suing the band for the influence that their music allegedly had on the boys actions. The parents argued that their sons, who probably already had suicidal tendencies, were influenced enough to take action after experiencing the message in Judas Priests music. Judas Priest claimed that they did not intentionally place a subliminal message on the album, and made the argument that, even if they had used subliminal messages, the messages should be protected by the First Amendment.


The judge, Justice Jerry Carr Whitehead, ruled that the First Amendments protection of freedom of speech and press does not extend as far as subliminal messages. Since the recipient of a subliminal message is unaware of it, the message cant contribute to dialogue, the pursuit of truth, the marketplace of ideas, or personal autonomy. There is no information exchange when it comes to subliminal messages, and no disagreement or argument is possible if recipients are unaware of the messages presence. Judge Whitehead also explained that people have a right to be free from unwanted speech. Since subliminal material cannot be avoided, it constitutes an invasion of privacy (Vance v. Judas Priest 18b).


Justice Whitehead ruled, however, in favor of Judas Priest. His ruling was based on the defenses insistence that the power of such a message to move a person to action has never been proven (for more on this idea, look at the psychology section of this website). He stated his conclusions on the subliminal threat in this way


The scientific research presented does not establish that subliminal stimuli, even if perceived, may precipitate conduct of this magnitude...The strongest evidence presented at the trial showed no behavioral effects other than anxiety, distress or tension. (Vance v. Judas Priest, 10)


Jon KellyInner Voice AnalystTel 888 45 0751jon@yourinnervoice.comThese are among the most commonly asked questions I receive when discussing this amazing phenomenon. If you dont see the answer to your own question then send it by email to the address above for inclusion in a later version! Question Will the same backwards message be observed hidden in recordings of different speakers if they recite the same lines from a written script? Answer Under natural conditions, we each put our own unique spin on what we are saying. While the written word is fixed, speech is loose and spontaneous, allowing for the occurrence of unique events every time we say something. If three great Hollywood actors, for example, Al Pacino, Robert Redford, and Harrison Ford were reciting lines at a casting call, would each give the same reading? Waveform analysis of the recordings would immediately show unique characteristics of each individuals expression. Backwards analysis would reveal that each speaker would not form the same messages in reverse, if at all. Question Under blind testing conditions, can multiple independent observers record the same message/event while listening to a backwards recording of speech? Answer During the September 17th, 001 broadcast of Peter Weissbachs The Quest radio show, as on many shows, callers were asked to identify messages extracted from backwards recordings of speech under blind listening conditions. Without any assistance and in front of thousands of witnesses, callers were able to accurately identify the hidden messages. This real-world test demonstrated the repeatability of my independent observations. The positive result lends high credibility to the hypothesis that unconscious backwards messaging is a valid empirical phenomenon. Question Are backwards messages a credible source of reliable information? Answer Positive results from ongoing real-world testing lend high credibility to the hypothesis that unconscious backwards messaging is a valid empirical phenomenon. Working in one-on-one sessions, many of them by telephone, my clients consistently speak to the accuracy of the information found encoded backwards in their speech. Live analysis conducted with strangers during radio interviews also produces spectacular results that are usually verified on the spot, in front of thousands of witnesses. These are expert-level results. For beginners, this process will stimulate individual bias and unresolved conflicts while the listener becomes mentally and emotionally attuned to monitoring recordings of speech played in reverse. It is important to simply make note of these observations, without judgment, and seek feedback from the speaking source in order to assess the validity of ones observations. Working independently, beginners may be frustrated in their attempts to get verifiable results. However, after one or two hours of training, a group of beginners can collectively compile very accurate portraits of speakers even under blind listening conditions. FREE EZINE SUBSCRIPTION!





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Answers to Your Questions!Question If this phenomenon is invisible under normal circumstances, how can we be sure that its real? Answer While it remains unlikely that the average observer could detect backwards messages without the aid of a recording/playback device, there are numerous other phenomena that are equally invisible yet have gained wide and popular acceptance. Have you ever seen a magnetic field? You cant actually see the field itself, but you can see the effect it has on objects placed nearby. Have you ever seen an electron? You cant actually see electricity, but you can see how it makes your computer work. Have you ever seen an air molecule? You cant actually see the air, but you can see that without it you wouldnt be able to breathe. Just like magnetism, electricity and air, backwards hidden messages are very real. Question Where do the messages come from? Answer From a mechanistic perspective, it can be said that involuntary muscular contractions affecting the speech organs embed messages within human speech while people talk. Regarding the source of these instructions to the various muscle groups involved in the coordinated effort to encode speech, references to themes of the Freudian Subconscious, the Jungian Collective Unconscious, and Transpersonal Consciousness are featured regularly as message contents. These include references to emotions, past traumas, sexuality, dreams, myth, archetype, future events, divinity and more. Question Why are the messages encoded backwards? Answer From a Freudian perspective, the messages are encoded backwards in order to bypass the censor mechanism of the speakers Ego, thereby providing an unparalleled look into the unconscious mind. Backmasking of messages in popular musical recordings during the 60s and 70s escaped the attention of most listeners. However, those who knew the key to decoding, playing the record in reverse, were able to observe the occurrence of humorous and cryptic messages deliberately spliced in by the artists. According to Freud, the Ego is engaged in the repression of unconscious material that a psychoanalyst will access through the narration of dreams and observations of the client in free association. Just like the listener who is unaware of backmasking in music, the Ego is deceived by the backwards encoding of messages in speech, and therefore fails to censor the message contents. Question Are these really messages? Answer According to Marshall McLuhan, cool communications are low definition signals that blend in with their surrounding background and require a higher degree of participation on the part of the receiver. This concept is an excellent description for the phenomenon of backwards speech. The variations in quality of message enunciation means the signal varies in definition. The backwards encoding assures that the messages blend in completely with the aural backdrop. The time required for skilled, technologically assisted observers to record message events speaks to the high degree of participation required for conscious reception to occur. If McLuhan is correct, these are messages - cool messages. (C) 001 Jon Kelly All Rights Reserved


Where is a persons threshold of consciousness? It varies. Im only noticing the air conditioner in the room because I decided earlier to use it as an example. But until the moment of starting this example I was not conscious of hearing the air conditioner. Would I have noticed if it stopped? I was now and then hearing snatches of music from the table radio, mostly when I stopped typing. Where was my threshold of consciousness in each of these moments? Awareness of the sub-liminal is relative.


If you dont believe it, notice what happens when I remind you that you are reading this. Now you are more aware of an act that you were alrfrom eady doing. When I call your attention to it by mentioning it from within the act itself, your level of consciousness jumps from one level to another. To read correctly, you have to be unaware of doing it, at one level, while, at another level, being totally aware of it.


Then theres your butt. Its touching something. Before I mentioned it, you probably werent aware of it touching anything at all. But its never disconnected from your brain. Yet in some way it WAS disconnected, gone--until I called your attention to it. Then, your butt was there again. When I start talking about something else, youll stop noticing your butt again. Ill draw your attention somewhere else. To your tongue. Feel it in there, taking up all that space in your mouth? Now whered that butt go?


Youll mostly stop noticing it, but not totally. Its connected to your brain 4 hours a day. Normally, you shift your position when your butt tells you to, even if you are totally engrossed in something going on outside your body, such as a sports event or a movie.Thats an example of unconscious awareness, if you needed one.


And then theres the title at the top of almost all these pages. It says ADVERTISING, with the word s u b l i m i n a l behind it three times.





Once you see the words s u b l i m i n a l you cant stop seeing them.


But did you notice that you cant pay total attention to the big word ADVERTISING and to the little words subliminal at exactly the same time? All the words are there on the page at exactly the same time. But you cant consciously pay attention to all of them at the same time.


You have to keep shifting your attention back and forth between the two attention layers that Ive created by having BIG RED LETTERS and the hollow black letters. Ads are carefully designed to manipulate your attention (and memory) the same way.








People sometimes ask Wheres the scientific evidence, the studies that show there is such a thing as subliminal perception and that it works as claimed?


Unexpectedly, the problem is with the word scientific, which suggests not only a specific method and reliable results but a process of open discovery and public sharing of those results.


As is often the case with government-sponsored research, in the corporate world, the world of trade secrets, very little scientific openness exists.The word there is proprietary. Knowledge is owned exclusively by the sponsor of the research, the corporation.


Corporate knowledge is often compartmentalized and made available even within the corporation on a strict need to know basis. Involved employees sign non-disclosure agreements. Violation of contract by revealing secrets is a career killer and law-suit trigger.


When the research has been contracted out to a firm that specializes in that kind work, the knowledge is further compartmentalized. The specialists keep the specialized methods to themselves while the corporate contacts who hired them get access only to the more generalized results.


The methods of the corporations research department or of the specialized research firm may or may not be strictly scientific. Who knows? Most of its very existence is secret and denied (as the cigarette companies have demonstrated).


And its no secret that there is a voodoo element in much corporate research and a faddishness in much of policy-making.


But it is certain that the process is not open and the results not shared and able to be publicly confirmed or refuted.


What little is reported in outlets such as The Journal of Advertising Research only hints at the accumulated knowledge of this subject stored in corporate vaults, a tiny bit of which is now and then acknowledged off the cuff--as a bit of a brag--to an outsider over a drink or three. Thats my experience.





NOTE My favorite gambit is to insult the potential source by ridiculing the whole subliminal thing as a practical joke foisted on the public by a bunch of fakers who wouldnt know valid and reliable research if it bit them in the ass.





An interesting note


Five, even 10 years later, Ive had many people who were exposed to ad examples in slide presentations be able to not only recall specific ads, but also what was said about them, even though only a minute or less had been spent on some of those examples.


What made them stick in the mind so tightly after all that time





Notice how these people are dwarfed by the alcohol and its accessories.


The suggestion here is that the drink is more powerful than any one of them is.





Another message is that, being large, alcohol also has the power to make certain things happen that you fantasize about wanting to happen--but probably couldnt do anything about unless the power of alcohol helped you.


Theres an expression related to falling into the booze. The glass in the foreground acts out that idea by being large enough that someone could actually fall into it.


How good are you at noticing details that are really pretty obvious but still out of range of your conscious awareness as you glance briefly at an ad while turning the page?


Hint Its in the picture. In words.





Everything else in the ad is a distractor from two words.


Look again. Theyre in the lower left hand corner of the picture.


They are separate but connected, one over the other to create a sentence.


Its a standard two-part message to every smoker. Its





Part one is an order Open your cigarette pack


To be able to do that, it has to be a new pack.


Part two is a description The cigarette pack is open.


Same core message as the sheer excitement ad, but in much more symbolic visual language. Almost everyone knows what the expression third leg refers to. But before the womans liberation movement, which was popular when this ad came out, normally it only applied to men. The clue that the womens movement is relevant is, of course, cued by the MS. in the ad.








Once again, the top message and the underlying message.


What is the most logical, but also the least likely, color that you would expect to see in a Kotex ad? The color that fills the bottom of the picture.


The words say protection.


Her face is calm, even inviting.





But the bottom of the picture says flood. And clots.


Notice that it all starts below her waist.


It also says someone will see--or at least the face signals that. What face? The one with the big Elton John style glasses made of red blobs. Here it is. Just below the hand that has the red splotch on it. See the nose and mouth. Looks male to from here.








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