Thursday, June 30, 2011

SCRUB

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SCRUB TYPUS


Causative Agent


The causative organism of scrub typhus is Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. This is a ploemorphic, gram-negative, bacillus shaped, intracellular parasite. This is a special type of parasite called a protelean parasite because its larvae are parasitic, but the adults are predatory. R. tsutsugamushi does not live very long outside of a hosts cell. However, it can be furthered studied in a laboratory by cultivating it into tissues such as embryonated chicken eggs or vertebrate cell cultures. The usual cycle of the parasite is from an arthropod to a wild animal. Humans can become an accidental host by standing in the way and getting bitten. Scrub typhus is also called tropical typhus because it is mostly found in hot, humid areas that are prone to flooding.


Pathogenicity and Disease Symptoms


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The parasite incubates in the new hosts endothelial cells for about 10-1 days. Soon after, the victim can experience headaches, fever, anorexia and general apathy. The site of the infection is a lesion called a chigger bite. The lesion can enlarge to about 8 to 1 mm and the center become dark due to death of tissue cells. About 5 to 8 days after lesion arrival, a dull red rash may appear all over the body. In the endothelium of the small blood vessels of the mammalian host, particularly in the brain and heart, thrombus formation leads to the obstruction of blood flow and escape of red blood cells into surrounding tissues. This damages the surrounding tissue and the endothelial cells, which result in plasma leakage, decrease in blood volume and shock. These damages also lead to additional symptoms such as enlargement of the spleen, nervous disturbances, delirium and death.


Transmission and Epidemiology


The organism is transmitted to humans through the bite from larval tromiculid mites, a family of mites in the genus Leptotrombidium. R. tsutsugamushi is found throughout the mites body, but mostly in the salivary glands. When these mites feed on humans or rodents, such as rats, R. tsutsugamushi is transmitted to the host. The disease serves as a great threat to the people of Southeastern Asia, north Queensland, Australia, and islands of Indian and southwest Pacific Oceans. The mortality rate can range from 1 to 60 percent if left untreated and 5 percent if treated. The disease is rare in the United States but can be found in the tropical areas, such as the Pacific Islands. Death can occur as a direct result of the disease, or from secondary effects, such as bacterial pneumonia, encephalitis, or circulatory failure. If death does occur, it is rapid, usually by the end of the second week of infection. The most recent outbreak was in the 140s during World War II. At this time, Scrub typhus caused more deaths than malaria in many parts of Asia.


Treatment and Control


The disease is detected with the Weil Felix Serologic test. Serologic tests, test immune function, and are performed using the clear yellow liquid part of the blood. The disease can be treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline, chloramphenical, and doxycycline. Transmission of the disease can be controlled by vaccination. So far, only experimental vaccines had been developed, no commercially licensed vaccines are produced in the United States, also the use of repellents and protective clothing and avoidance of vector-infested habitats. If a person is exposed, prompt detection and removal of arthropods on clothing and skin is important.


Current Research


Recently, Scrub typhus was found to be resistant to certain antibiotics. Researchers began to study the scrub typhus study antibiotics looking for differences in time of fever resolution and incidence of relapse. The trials compared tetracycline against chloramphenicol and tetracycline against doxycycline. Doxycycline and tetracycline trial showed little difference in fever resolution time and no relapses occurred with either drug. As of January 00, researchers came to the conclusion that tetracycline and doxycycline were the most effective in treating Scrub typhus.





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descriptive writing

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The greatest chefs in the world use different techniques to produce an outstanding dish. A writer is no different from a chef. There are various techniques that a writer can use to create his masterpiece. In my opinion, one of the most important methods for writers is the use of description.


Descriptions, for writers, help make their stories come to life. It is a useful tool to put the reader into the story. A descriptive paragraph will create a vivid image in the reader’s mind of the person, animal, place, thing, mood, or just about anything the author is writing about. A good description also appeals to the senses. The reader can actually hear, feel, smell, taste, and see the writer’s protagonist sitting on the warm beach drinking fresh lemonade.


There are many factors that come into play in descriptive writing. The author must use details to make clear images for the reader. The right mixture of adjectives, adverbs, similes, and metaphors are issues that the writer must consider. But too much of anything is not good. Just like chefs can’t use too much spices, the writer must use just the right amount of details. They have to use the amount that is necessary to achieve their goal. Too many details can confuse the reader, or bring them off track from where the author is trying to take you.





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There are a lot of good ways to use description in your writing. Whatever your topic is, make your writing more vivid with details about color, light, size, and shape. When you want to describe an object, you should divide the object into parts and describe each part in detail. Always try to appeal to the reader’s senses. In turn, your words will jump out of the page and paint a perfect picture for them. You will make the reader “feel” the story. You will make the reader “see” what you see.


All authors use the technique of description in their work. In “This Man Has Expired,” by Robert Johnson, he uses description so perfectly. He described the room so clearly; to every little bit of detail. It’s as if you are sitting right there in the witness area. As the story progresses, you can actually feel the anxiety and remorse for the prisoner whose life is about to end.


“Anatomy of a Martian,” by Isaac Asimov, is a good example of what I was talking about before. He paints a picture with his words of what a Martian might look like on Mars. He divided the Martian into parts, and described each part of the body clearly. The reader builds an image of the Martian in his head as he continues reading. In the end the reader will have a distinct figure of what Asimov wanted him/her to see.


Another great example of descriptive writing is by one of my favorite authors. “The Tell-Tale Heart,” by Edgar Allan Poe is a brilliant short story. His play of words is so detailed that you can actually feel the cold shiver down your spine. Poe brought you into the mind of a madman. He described every little thought in the narrator’s head. I felt that I was the one sticking my head into the room; moving ever so slowly, waiting, watching that “evil” eye. Even after I put the book down, I can still feel the goose bumps on my arm.


As you can see, description is a good technique to use in your writing. Description makes the writing more interesting and easier to comprehend. You can find description in every work. It is a very useful tool for all writers to take advantage of.





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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Appropriate sources must be used to persuade audience

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Appropriate sources must be used to persuade audience


This essay shows arguments about how do writers sometimes, fail to choose the right words when writing a literary work. According to Miller and Swift, the authors of the essay, as time passes by, words change their meanings thus, changing their rules when used in grammar but many have a hard time giving it up. As a result, there are many ambiguous and insidious terms that take time and trouble to write more precisely. Contributing to this problem according to them, are the old terms that have lost it favor and the psychological impact of the grammatical rule mandating masculine-gender pronouns. They tried to show who’s in charge of the English language by citing several evidences that shows the unconscious degrading effects of the present language today, more especially to the women. The importance of using clear and precise words were also introduced because for them, it reflects a vigorously alive, dynamic society that is capable of identifying almost all of the new situations that has not been a subject of conversations before. For the finale, they quoted George Orwell when he said that we must let the meaning choose the appropriate words not the words to choose the appropriate meaning.


The structure of this essay is based on their assumption that the sexes are thought of as opposite. If one of the sexes is becoming archaic, then the other sex must be the one in charge of the English language. They gave examples of words to prove their assumption and clearly manifests that the two terms, instead of having parallel meanings, happens to overlap one sex over the other. They used the bible and history to establish the facts. “In the book of Genesis, Adam named all the animals and was given dominion over them, later, the story says, “Adam called his wife’s name Eve.” (550). They also cite distinguishable persons that support their arguments. They divided it in to three sections, “Female-Negative-trial,” “The Slippery Slope,” and “Resistance to Change and the Problem of Precision.


On the “Female-Negative-Trial” the authors advance the arguments by comparing the two words representing each sex using the definition it has from the most recently updated edition of Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. The two entries were proven to be not comparable to one another because the definition of womanly has no other comparable synonyms according to the dictionary than when it defines the man where there are admirable qualities that all of us might wish we had.


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“They’re saying that in addition to defining characteristics appropriate to a man, like vocal pitch, manly is synonymous with admirable qualities that all of us might wish we had…. And where is the list of comparable synonyms for womanly? There aren’t any. Instead, womanly is defined only in a circular way � through characteristics seen to be appropriate or inappropriate to women, not human beings in general.” (55).


The “Slippery Slope” also supports their arguments. They used nouns that have the same words when regarding to a male sex and a different word when regarding a female sex. Most of the time the general word, which is on the top of a triangle, is used interchangeably with the masculine gender word and that confused a lot of people to the extent that they are both perceive as the same. While this slope is slipping down on one side, the feminine gender word was abandoned on the other side.


Also in the “Resistance to Change and the Problem of Precision,” they site an example of resistance made by one’s environment towards his new ideas. Many words were developed and evolved through time and almost all of the authorities put it down. Nevertheless, there is still a fortunate few who adapted these new words. There is also the example derived from the use of the pronoun they, which is from the start can be used to refer to a single person. This word, as time passed by, changes its meaning and use. It is now used only to refer plural nouns but still, many find it hard to adapt the progress of our language. Because it is all mixed up, the readers are the one who usually get confused or get lost of their products. The use of he generically is, like man used generically. At this point, they presented enough evidences to support their premise that men are the one considered as a standard of norm in the English Language.


The audience of this essay were the members of the Association of American University Presses and they will probably believe on paragraphs wrote by a professional or entries derived from widely accepted belief. The authors used the appropriate sources for them to be persuaded. At the start, they used the Book of Genesis from the bible, which is widely accepted as a belief not only by Christians but also by Muslims and Jews. They used basic anthropology, to support the idea that the single best way to understand the culture of any society is to study the lexicon of its language. They also got some evidence copied straight from the most recently updated edition of Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Nobody will disagree with that. David Hume, a philosopher is creditable to the press. Alexander Gil was a London schoolmaster, he was the headmaster of St.Paul’s School at the time and Lord Chesterfield, is a well-educated British salesman, everyone will not find it hard to believe them. Even on Lynn’s White, Jr., a president of Mills College, there is no reason for them to accept his claim. Also, George Orwell and Douglas Hofstadter, who already wrote numerous essays, and the latter, wrote a book, gained enough respect from the press. They gathered sources that will appear creditable to the press. In this case though, it is not that hard to persuade the press. There are a wide variety of sources that can be used to persuade the press. The press almost accepts anything a well-known man will say. Popularity is the key, the more popular your subject is, the more likely he is appealing to the press. That is what the authors did they used popular sources.


Miller and Swift surely proved themselves out in this essay. I can be sure that there is no way the press will not take that arguments and make it an wider issue. By using enough number and correct set of sources to support your argument, it is easy to persuade your audience. One must not disregard the audience because they are the one to be persuaded at. It is a must that an author gathers sources that will be believed by his/her audience because even though he/she got many evidences, it will not help if he chooses the wrong sources. When it happens, all of your efforts and time will become a waste.





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Darwin

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whenever there is someone else with a higher authority responsible for our job status. To function in harmony, the supervisor and the employees must understand that the other’s decision is based on a survival skill.


Similarly, in Eric Alterman’s The Nation, he contributes a majority of the problems to the consumers themselves. He states that “every time we eat one (hamburger) we are contributing to a cycle of suffering not only of animals, but also humans.” Each time a consumer contributes to McDonald’s by buying one of their burgers, we slowly kill away the “mom and pop operations”. However, it’s difficult to keep business such as these stores operational in the first place because not every consumer wants to sit and eat. The general trend of the typical American life is to get from one point to the other point with quickness and ease. It is the role of business like McDonald’s to satisfy these luxuries. The role that consumers play is to be the one contributing to the existence of McDonalds so that in return, they are able to serve a quick lunch without hassle.


In The day in 171 that Luvernel Clark started, Tamar Wilner illustrates the role of foreign competition and how it affects the workers around the United States. As corporate CEO’s, their duty and role is to find a way to manufacture more products for less money. Like Roger Smith, going a foreign location was the best option because there, employees worked for less money. When hundreds of Tennessee plant workers were laid off to foreign competition, there was simply no option for them. Their role as the “weaker species” is to accept what fate is handed to them by higher authorities like Roger Smith. Although, putting hundreds of people on streets is unethical, the corporate leaders have this option and turn to this option for their well-being also. If their business is not doing well because they overpay workers, it’s their duty to do what is needed to keep the company afoot and keep consumers like us satisfied with lower prices.


Although what Roger Smith and CEO’s like him did was unethical, it teaches us to always anticipate the worst. Corporate CEO’s have the option to let anyone go anytime if needed to keep their company moving because it’s their duty. Because consumers and workers have no control over what companies decide, their duty is to always be aware that survival may mean moving on to a different job. If we, as consumers and employees, demand cheaper prices on Levi’s jeans or cheaper cars, we must understand that certain sacrifices must be made in order for corporations to meet these demands.


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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

American Dream, Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman

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in Arthur Miller�s most famous novel the subject od the American Dream is one of the most important ones. The American Dream or elsewise the wrong interpretation of the American Dream is the reason for Willy�s failure. He believes that in America one only needs to be well liked in order to succeed not only in business but in life as well. Unfortunately,Willy is not well liked. He neither succeeds in business nor in his private life as his son Biff discovers his affaire and therefore does not look up to his father anymore but instead calls him a fake.


At willys funeral his son Happy states that his father would have had the wrong dreams but in fact he did not only have the wrong dreams but also was his behaviour the reason for Biff�s failure.


To be a shipping clerk and become rich is the dream most men have. Some of them believe it would be possible to fulfill this dream in the USA but in fact that is not as easy as one may believe anymore. The dream was developed at a time were men were searching for gold and industry and economy were not as developed as they are todays as well as in the 10s when Arthur Miller�s play was written.


Willy always seemed to be the popular and successful father to his family although they have never been wealthy. However, after Biff had found out about his father being dishonest he lost his hope and his dreams. He did not attend summer school in order to pass his math exam and be able to go to university. He did not see the point in working hard anymore, at least he was still well liked.


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Bernard, the son of their neighbour Charley, was not at all well liked in school but he did manage his life. First of all he did pass all his exams, he worked his way up to become a successful laywer at the supreme court. He was actually somebody at the time the play is about.


Willy is kind of jelous because not only Charley was more successful than him but also becasue his son was able to make his own living which was something he could not even do anymore.





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Rip Van Winkle

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1. Rip Van Winkle search for his own identity, flee to the mountain, return back to nature and take Nature as refuge. Sleepy Hollow superstition, Realism vs. Romanticism. These two works draw from German sources. Irving takes the myths of the Europe and creates unique American stories. Also, it appears that strangers are not welcome in these two works. When Rip walks back into the town from the mountains it is not until after he is recognized as Rip Van Winkle that he is accepted by the town people. A similar situation occurs in Sleepy Hollow. Why Ichabod is not accepted into community and why Katrina never plans to marry him are because he is a Yankee, an outsider. In both of the works, we can find there is little description of women and the descriptions of the female characters are not positive. Rip Van Winkle¡¦s wife is depicted as a shrew and Ichabod¡¦s love for Katrina is because she is rich. Moreover, the author uses legends in arranging the plots in both of the stories.


Both of the stories have improbable plots. Clearly, a man sleeping for twenty years in the forest is unreasonable, and so does a headless man riding through the forest on a horse. Gothic elements are peppered throughout Sleepy Hollow, including the reference to the headless horseman as a goblin, the mention of witchcraft and direful omens, and the haunting of ghosts.


The discussions on Rip Van Winkle included the romantic notion of capturing fleeing nature in words, the use of fantasy in the story, the romantic ideals of individualism and identity, and attacking American politics and religion. Moreover, Irving used the American landscape, and added American scenery and events as the backdrop for his popular legends Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow However, Irvings style and choice of subjects greatly influenced those and other writers. For example, his imaginative treatment of historical themes and his use of folklore and other elements of romanticism promoted the romantic literary movement in the United States.





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Monday, June 27, 2011

Finance Diversification

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Diversification


After looking at the cyclical nature of the communications equipment industry, it was clear that a company from an established industry was needed to diversify the wild swings in ANDW’s stock price. A year regression of ANDW stock performance revealed a beta of 1.8. This high beta signifies that ANDW is almost two times as volatile as the general market. A company with a much tamer beta is required to balance a portfolio of ANDW stock. After a thorough sector and industry analysis, Fresh Delmonte Products (FDP) was found to be a stable company in the Crops industry under the Consumer Non-Cyclical sector. FDP is a large producer and marketer of fruits and vegetables whose performance is dependent on global supply and of its produce. Thus, FDP is not as prone to economic and general business spending swings, like ANDW. FDP’s historic performance highlights it as a flight to safety in troubled economies. The chart to the right illustrates FDP’s performance versus ANDW during the last years.


To examine the diversification effects of adding FDP to an ANDW portfolio lets first look at the characteristics of a 100% ANDW portfolio. Based on the past three years of stock data, ANDW managed to loose .01% of its stock value. The risk of that return was measured with a standard deviation of 16.7% and with a beta of 1.84. When correlated with the market the R revealed that only 8.0% of the variation was tied to the market.


REGRESSION Std. Dev Beta R


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ANDW -1.68% 1.884 8.0%


FDP 50.0% 0.658 0.66%


50/50 Portfolio 18.6% 1.081 6.71%


The combination of FDP and ANDW stock in a 50/50 portfolio was effective in reducing some of the diversifiable risk associated with the individual stocks. The 50/50 portfolio gained 18.6% annually on average. The risk was reduced as noted by the lower standard deviation of 11.1% and beta of 1.08. When this portfolio was correlated against the S&P 500 the R suggested that only 6.71% of the variation was associated with the direction of the market. These results are illustrated in the table to the right.





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I was blind

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I was blind to everything around me. The sensation was new and exciting, and I felt as if I was somehow in another world. I was in a world of blackness, but somehow, my other senses compensated for this loss. It was as if my hearing was an instrument- newly tuned in to my surroundings.


I felt around in the blackness, searching for something or someone. It was a bright, pleasant day. The sun was warm on my back, and I could smell the tall grass around me. The wind blew my hair from my face, and for a brief moment I thought I saw someone, but I knew I must have imagined it. “Hello!!” I cried. “Is anyone there?? Somebody! Anybody!” I started to run in that direction, lumbering through the tall grass. I soon became tired however, and the warm sun combined with a lack of water made me feel lightheaded. I rested until I caught my breath, and then continued on at a slow but steady pace. All of a sudden, I could feel the climate around me change. It was as if I had stepped into an air-conditioned room. The air around me was heavy and damp, and my sweaty skin became cold as it dried. There was no wind- it had been blocked out my what I discovered to be a grove of trees. As I walked I began to hear the sounds of running water. I figured that I must be nearing a river of some kind, and continued in that direction. The ground under my feet was spongy- the foliage was deep and thick. As I felt my way through, I realized my sight was not important here- I wouldn’t be able to see anything anyways. My steady pace was soon interrupted however by strange sounds. I heard a low whistle, and tiny whisperings among the trees. I was excited, but also apprehensive. My lack of sight made me feel vulnerable and alone- I no longer wanted to be here. The voices grew louder, as if they were approaching. I felt along until I reached the base of a large tree, and crouched down. As I waited, I felt a strange tickling sensation running up the edge of my leg. It gave me the chills. It’s a good thing I can’t see what sort of creature was on my leg, I thought, or else I would probably be quite terrified. I heard a twig snap across the way. I froze. What I was sure now to be a person was out of breath. I could hear the hiss of a walkie-talkie, and a boy’s voice said “Are you safe?” Still panting, I heard a girl’s voice in reply. “Yeah I’m fine. He’ll never catch us- are you kidding? Not in here anyway.” I slowly snuck out from behind the tree, being careful to make as little noise as possible. Then, quick as a flash, I jumped in her direction, waving my arms wildly until they came in contact with her. She screamed, and then began to laugh. I smiled and pulled the blindfold off. “Caught you.”







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Sunday, June 26, 2011

Lifetime employment

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To manage the flow of human resources within organizations, some large and prestigious Japanese firms have adopted the policy of “lifetime employment” (Fisher et al, 10). There have never been any official rules concerning implementation of lifetime employment, but there has been a convention of long-term employment among the large corporations. It is based on the concept that if an employee devotes his life to his company, the company will in return provide him with a guarantee of lifelong employment, housing and other things to take care of his needs. In a sense, this commitment means that the employee ceases to be an individual and becomes a part of the company (Osamu, 15). Fisher et al (10) found the employees covered by this policy comprise to 0 percent of the full-time work force. Many are white-collar and some are blue collar workers. They are guaranteed job security from the time they hired-upon graduation-until they reach the retirement age of fifty-five.


Why do the firms adopt the lifetime employment?


Firstly, one of the important reasons to adopt the lifetime employment system is the system which provides certain categories of staff with employment that lasts throughout their working life (Beardwell & Holden 17). Once employed by one company, an employee might expect to work uninterruptedly until retirement age in the knowledge and expectation that work, training and, quite often, housing and education for dependants would be provide. These companies have recruited at graduate-level and as an employee you have often experienced an annual wage increase, more or less automatic promotion with age and it has been highly unlikely to be dismissed because of a recession. As a result of this people have often identified strongly with their company and stayed with the same company for a long time, since they have not benefited from changing jobs. The system has thus been mutually beneficial.


Secondly, another important reason is the lifetime employment is the desire of Japanese employers to inhibit the mobility of highly trained workers. For instance, if an employee wants to resigns from a major company, he has to seek a lower-paying position at a small company or join a foreign-owned enterprise doing business. That means the employee lost his status and would get a low salary. Therefore, the mobility almost exits.


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Finally, Japanese personnel planners should find it relatively easy to deal with short-term shortages and overages of labor (Fisher et al, 10). Because when business is good, major firms contract out a great deal of work to smaller firms When times are hard, this work is done in-house by small core of lifetime blue-collar employees. Individuals unfortunate enough to be working fir subcontractors during those times lose their jobs; many small companies go bankrupt. Because of the unrestricted workers, it seems that Japanese personnel planners should find it relatively easy to deal with short-term shortages and overages of labour. In addition, if the majority of workers retire at the same age, it is simple for human resource planners to predict the future supply of this rather static work force.


It is undoubtedly that the lifetime employment system has been benefiting Japanese organisations in some extend. However it brings some difficulties to the organisations that implement the policy as well.


Firstly, the demand for workers is tied to the market’s demand for firms’ products or services. If Japanese firms had to retain all employees at all times, they could not survive economic depression. Therefore, many employees do not receive lifetime employment. For instance, firms expect female workers to retire upon marriage or the birth of their first child. Most firms also rely on large numbers of temporary, seasonal, part-time employees. In fact, blue-collar workers often sign six month labor contracts, and farmers take short-term labor contracts during the winter season.


Secondly, Small and medium-sized companies have not been able to guarantee their employees work from graduation to retirement, because they are less powerful and more adversely affected by market shifts and deteriorating economic conditions. It has therefore been less desirable to work for these companies.


As the reasons mentioned above, in the early 10s Japan entered a deep recession and companies were no longer able to just keep on hiring more graduates and training them in-house, expecting the investment to pay-off in the long run, instead they are relying on mid-career workers. Since Japan is not experiencing the growth rates as earlier employers are no longer able to offer their employees the same security as they have been doing up to recently. As companies are unwilling to keep expensive workers, they try to solve the problem by implement early retirement schemes, in which they are encouraged to retire early with extra money. But finding a new job is often very difficult. Furthermore they are transferring staff within the companies to avoid in-house unemployment, which has arisen in some firms as a result of reluctance of laying-off workers.





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Elements of an effective motivation program

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Elements of an effective motivation program


1. Establish clear performance expectations


It starts with the managers role to set clear expectations and his ability to enable people to reach those expectations. The manager must ask if the subordinates understand and accept his performance expectations. The foundation for an effective motivation program is goal setting. Effective Goal setting has three components


1.1 Goal setting process.


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· The manner by which goals are established must be considered.


· Goals must be understood and accepted if they are to be effective.


1. Goal characteristics.


· Goals must be specific, measurable, unambiguous and behavioral. This reduces misunderstanding about what behaviors will be rewarded.


· Goals should be consistent. Inconsistent goals will create frustration and alienation.


· Goals must be a challenge. Higher expectations generally lead to higher performance.


1. Feedback.


· Feedback should be given. It provides opportunities for clarifying expectations, adjusting goal difficulty and gaining recognition.





. Remove Obstacles to performance





.1. A key ingredient for an effective goal program is a supportive work environment. After the goal setting process, managers must focus on the ability part of the performance formula. Ask the question - Do subordinates feel it is possible to achieve this goal or expectation? Help from the manager must include


· Making sure the worker has the aptitude required for the job.


· Provide the necessary training.


· Securing needed resources.


· Encouraging cooperation and support from the work unit.


.. How much help should the manager provide?


Level of involvement should vary according to what subordinates need to perform a specific task, how much they expect and how much support is available to them.





..1. A task that is highly structured and easy to perform it does not require extensive management direction. If a task is unstructured and difficult - more direct management is required and problem-solving activities will be seen as constructive.





... Expectations of subordinates is influenced by


· Desire for autonomy


· Experience


· Ability


... Capable and experienced employees feel they less assistance from their managers as they are adequately trained, know how to obtain the necessary resources and handle problems themselves. On the other hand, it could be frustrating for new employees or those with marginal skills to obtain available resources without help and input from the manager.





. Reinforce performance-enhancing behavior.


Now encourage goal completion by linking performance to extrinsic and intrinsic outcomes. Elements of an effective motivational programmed is based on two related principles


· Managers should link rewards to performance - rather than seniority or membership.


· Managers should use discipline to extinguish counterproductive behavior and use rewards to reinforce productive behaviors.


.1 Use rewards as reinforces.


Behaviors that positively affect performance - use highly desirable rewards. If an organization rewards all people identically - or on some basis other than performance - high performers are likely to feel that they are receiving fewer rewards than they deserve. Try to reduce status - call all employees associates or partners”


Non-financial rewards should also be included in effective performance reinforcing programs. By using the following guidelines you will get great motivational impact.


· Give the awards publicly.


· Use awards infrequently.


· Embed them in a credible reward process.


· Use the awards presentation to acknowledge past recipients.


· Make sure the award is meaningful within the org. culture.


.. The Strategies for shaping behavior.


There are three strategies for shaping behavior. Use Reprimand and Redirect to extinguish unacceptable behavior. Redirect and Reinforce are used to transform acceptable behavior into exceptional behavior.


..1. Reprimand.


Identify the specific inappropriate behavior. Give examples and indicate that the action must be stopped. Point out the impact of the problem on the performance of others, on the unit’s mission and so forth. Ask questions about causes and explore remedies. Discipline should immediately follow the offensive behavior. Focus exclusively on the specific problem. Focus should be on eliminating the problem and not climbing into the subordinate’s character.


... Redirect.


Describe and discuss the standards you expect. Make sure the individual understands and agrees that these are reasonable. Ask if the individual will comply and be supportive. Praise other aspects of work and make sure there are no work-related problems standing in their way of meeting your expectations. People reprimanded should understand how they could receive rewards in the future. The point is not to just punish but to change unacceptable behavior into acceptable behavior.


... Reinforce.


Identify rewards that are related to the individual. The likelihood that a reward will actually reinforce a specific performance-enhancing behavior depends on the extent the receiver actually values the specific outcome, believes that the reward allocation process was handled fairly and received the reward in a timely manner. Reward all improvements in performance timely and honestly. Promote intrinsic outcomes by fostering feelings of accomplishment and self-esteem in the subordinate. Effective managers understand that person to job interface has a strong impact on work performance. If individuals find their jobs uninteresting and unfulfilling, performance will suffer. Don’t assume anything!


4. Personal needs and personal motivation.


Murray’s manifest needs model proposed that individuals can be classified according the strengths of their various needs. He initially proposed twenty four needs but later scaled that down to


· Achievement.


· Affiliation.


· Power.


He said these needs are primarily learned, rather then inherited and they are activated by cues from the environment.


4.1. Need for achievement is defined as behavior toward completion with a


standard of excellence. This suggests that people with a high need for achievement are characterized by


· A tendency to set moderately difficult goals


· Strong desire to assume personal responsibility for work activities


· A single-mined focus on accomplishing a task


· A strong desire for detailed feedback on task performance


4.. Need for affiliation is dominated by the will to belong to a group and be accepted by it. These individuals are often characterized by


· A sincere interest in the feelings of others.


· A tendency to conform to the expectations of others, especially those whose affiliation they value.


· A strong desire for reassurance and approval from others.


4.. Need for power represents the desire to influence other and to control one’s environment. People with a need for power seeks leadership positions and tend to influence others openly. They perceive that control and influence is needed for personal efficiency. These individuals are characterized by


· They feel personally responsible for the success of their companies.


· They enjoy work and accomplish tasks in an orderly fashion.


· They often sacrifice own self-interests for the good of the company.


· They have a strong sense of justice and equity.


· They seek expert advice and not defensive when their ideas are criticized.





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Saturday, June 25, 2011

Three Phases of Life

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What is a hero? A hero is a man or woman that has undergone three stages of experiences in life. Life is comprised of many subsections. It comes in all forms, and for every individual, it is a different process. In Joseph Conrad’s classic novel, Heart of Darkness, the main character, Marlow, partakes in a quest into the deepest part of the jungle, losing much of what he holds dear while gaining a glimpse of the deeper recesses of his own conscious. With an overly simple, yet deeply philosophical plot line, Conrad gives Marlow’s journey, what seems to be many of the basic attributes of what Joseph Campbell calls the “Hero’s Journey” in his The Hero With A Thousand Faces. Campbell’s masterpiece parallels Marlow, while outlining the basic aspects of the archetypal “Hero Journey,” which describes the journey as consisting of three major sections Departure, Initiation, and Return.


According to Campbell, there are five subsections to the first stage of the hero’s journey, Departure the Call to Adventure, Refusal of the Call, Supernatural Aid, the Crossing of the First Threshold, and the Belly of the Whale. The first step, the Call of the Adventure, is the point in the hero’s life where a prophetic notice is given that something is about to change. Campbell states, “This first stage of the mythological journey signifies that destiny has summoned the hero and transferred his spiritual center of gravity from within the pale of his society to a zone unknown.” The “zone unknown” can have many facets, but in Heart of Darkness, for Marlow, the novel’s designated hero, this is represented by “a place of darkness,” or Africa. His call to adventure is the “snake,” or river of the Congo, with its tail “lost in the depths of the land.” He claimed it “charmed him.” At this point in history, Africa was still unexplored and gave Marlow the chance to go to a “zone unknown.” This clearly marks the beginning of his journey. Following the Call to Adventure is the Refusal of the Call. Campbell says this is the time when “the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action.” This step, however, is not represented in Heart of Darkness, for the reason that Marlow is not the writer of the novel. The audience only sees Marlow through the writer’s eyes. The third part of Departure is Supernatural Aid. This is the stage at which the hero has committed himself/herself to the journey and gains a guide or conductor. The supernatural help, to Marlow, is his aunt who was “determined to make no end of fuss to get me [Marlow] appointed skipper of a river steamboat.” The next phase is the Crossing of the First Threshold. During this part of the journey, the hero steps into the realm of the unknown, where rules and limits are nonexistent. This is the hero’s first step to becoming a hero because, as Campbell says, “The usual person is more than content, he is even proud, to remain within the indicated bounds, and popular beliefs give him every reason to fear so much as the first step into the unexplored.” For Marlow, it occurs when he steps into the main office of the trading company. He compares it to a conspiracy and says, “there was something ominous in the atmosphere.” The last part of the Departure stage is the Belly of the Whale, in which the final separation from the previous world occurs, allowing for entrance into the new one. Campbell compares this stage to a worshipper entering a temple, someone who is looking for rebirth. “The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles…these are the threshold guardians to ward away all incapable of encountering the higher silences within… the devotee at this moment of entry into the temple undergoes a metamorphosis.” As Marlow approaches his station, he is belittled by the immensity of the surrounding, outlining areas. Marlow sees the coast as “smiling, frowning, inviting, grand, mean, insipid, or savage.” Marlow remarks about his separation from the other men, a sign of possible “metamorphosis,” as his “isolation… that seemed to keep [him] away from the truth of things.” Paralleling all the parts of the Departure stage to Marlow’s experiences provides insight to the journey on which he must depart for, in order to be considered Campbell’s “hero.”


Marlow has completed the first part of the Hero’s Journey. He has gone through the five steps, with the exception of the Refusal of the Call part, and is prepared for the inception of the Initiation stage. From this point, however, Conrad alters his story. The next sections of the novel are journeys within one big journey. Marlow, once he has reached his destination, has to make a fresh start to his second destination to locate Kurtz. Still, the same steps apply. In the first step�the Call to Adventure�there is a change in Marlow’s life, which is the news of his actual descent down the river toward an ivory outpost, managed by Kurtz. The next step�Refusal of the call�is again not represented by Conrad. Third, the Supernatural Aid, in which involved the aunt, now involves a fellow agent. The agent is the accountant with the “white collared, pressed shirt.” Marlow refers to this rarity as “a miracle” and truly hears about Kurtz for the first time from him. Campbell says that the Supernatural Aid “gives a talisman of sorts, to aid the hero in his journey.” The so-called talisman given to Marlow is the information about his next destination. The fourth step is the Crossing of the First Threshold and in Heart of Darkness, the whole station is considered to serve as the first threshold into the jungle. The last step, the Belly of the Whale, is represented by Conrad’s acceptance of the destination and the possible change that can occur. This is also shown when he starts work on his wrecked steamboat on his first trail down the river. In addition, as a sign of his conscious change, Marlow remakes that “I felt I was becoming more scientifically interesting.” The usage of two separate departures, and the lack of a Refusal step, gives rise to the notion that Conrad is not following Campbell’s general “Hero” structure. However, he is not on his own scheme either as many of the novel’s instances follow the structure described in The Hero With A Thousand Faces.


Marlow has passed through his journey’s Departure and is set to proceed to the Initiation stage. Initiation and Return are comparable flights and can be intertwined. Initiation consists of six segments and is usually the most important action of a story, and Returns consists of two subsections. The six steps include the Road of Trials, the Meeting with the Goddess, Woman as the Temptress, Atonement with the Father, Apotheosis, and the Ultimate Boon. The first step�the Road of Trails�encompasses a series of tests, tasks and ordeals that a hero must undergo to begin his transformation. Campbell compares this area of the journey to “a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where we must survive a succession of trails.” As true in hero structure form, Marlow has to carry out three ordeals. The first task Marlow must complete on his Road of Trials, is to learn to be watchful and diligent when it comes to his steamer. He must watch for snags and occasional recesses in his “ever fluid” road. The next one comes to him as fog “more blinding than the night.” This leads him into his third and final test�a confrontation with the natives. He goes as far to push his fragile steamer directly into the bank and plunge through the natives, eventually scaring them off with the high-pitched wail of the steam whistle. The next step of the Initiation is his Meeting with the Goddess. Although Campbell, uses a woman as his primary example, seeing one’s self in a type of unity, does not necessarily mean love. For Marlow, his realization of unity and purpose comes directly after his last trial, while contemplating the probable death of Kurtz. “I…became aware that that was exactly what I had been looking forward to�a talk with Kurtz.” For Heart of Darkness, this step has two points the realization of purpose and the actual meeting with Kurtz. Campbell says this occurs at “the nadir, the zenith, or at the uttermost edge of the earth, at the central point in the cosmos, in the tabernacle of the temple, or within the darkness of the deepest chamber of the heart.” The last local is perfectly worded for Marlow’s position, in the heart of the jungle, in the “heart of darkness.” This is the point where Kurtz has thought to both mentally and physically bring about self-unification in Marlow’s conscious. The third step in the Initiation holds the Woman as a Temptress. Women, in this step, are supposed to be a metaphor for the physical and material temptations of life. Campbell calls it the sudden awareness that life is “tainted with the odor of flesh.” From Conrad, this step is very briefly mentioned when Marlow starts to track down Kurtz in the jungle. “I thought I would never get back to the steamer, and imagined myself living alone and unarmed in the woods to an advanced age…And I remember I confounded the beat of the drum with the beating of my heart, and was please at its calm regularity.” Finally, Marlow has unified his soul with his desired and then pushed away temptation. Now he moves on to the next step where he must confront Kurtz�the Atonement with the Father. In this step, the hero must confront and be taken in by whatever holds the ultimate power, in this case, Kurtz. “The problem of the hero going to meet his father is to pen up his soul beyond terror to such a degree that he will be ripe to understand how sickening and insane tragedies of this vast and ruthless cosmos are completely validated in the majesty of Being. The hero transcends life with its peculiar blind spot and for a moment rises to a glimpse of the source. He beholds the face of the father, understands�and the two are atoned.” At Marlow and Kurtz’s confrontation, Marlow tries to “break the heavy, mute spell of the wilderness�that seemed to draw it to its pitiless breast.” Marlow, in his quest to “glimpse the source,” says he “struggled with his soul,” and “for [Marlow’s] sins, [he had] to go through the ordeal of looking into himself.” As for Kurtz, Marlow sees him as “concentrated upon himself with horrible intensity” with his “soul gone mad.” He also claims to see “the inconceivable mystery of a soul that knew no restraint, no faith, and no fear, yet struggling blindly with itself.” All the previous steps have climbed to this. The fifth step of Initiation, the Apotheosis, is usually a stage for the hero when nothing can affect him. It is his moment of rest. For Marlow, it is just that. For the first time that is actually mentioned in the book, he goes to sleep. The last step in the stage of Initiation is the Ultimate Boon. This is the achievement of the goal that one started the quest for in beginning. Campbell writes, “What the hero seeks through intercourse with them [Gods, or in this case, Marlow] is therefore not finally themselves, but their grace, i.e., the power of their sustaining substance.” For Marlow, this “sustaining substance” is Kurtz’s knowledge of the unknown. It is not his physical body, but his mind that Marlow wants to preserve. He first thought of Kurtz as “only a voice,” but now Marlow is in control of that voice and has taken it from the darkness to start the Return with the ultimate boon.


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Heart of Darkness illustrates a night journey or a story of initiation, in which a man gains experiences from three flights in life Departure, Initiation, and Return. In Campbell’s The Hero With A Thousand Faces, a hero must go on a journey and have encounters with several different adventures in order to be considered a hero. Marlow goes on all three flights of life and thus renaming himself as hero. Marlow’s journey into the heart of Africa is also a journey into his own heart. Marlow starts out on his journey looking for adventure. His curiosity drives him to find Kurtz. Marlow soon finds that Kurtz, the supposed epitome of “civilized,” is actually barbaric, savage, and nothing more than the typical greedy colonial white male. Marlow soon realizes he has found something quite different than adventure. Marlow concludes that everyone has the potential for uncivilized behavior, but that no one can live with a “heart of darkness.”





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different objects to recycle

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recycling is a very important asset to earth. by recyclin you can save the ozone layer,you can save many homes as well.there are many recyclable objects such as paper,aluminum cans and strap metal.


paper and plastic is a very important benefit to this world in todays society.they are recycled so that they can be used daily.statistics show that only fourty five percent of the worlds population recycles paper and plastic. paper is used overand over to make other paper to write on. paper and plastic both are used to hold groceres. they are also used to make plates and toys.


as you can see there are many good recycling factors that paper and plastic are used for. aluminum cans are another thing that can be recycled in the enviroment and community.it not only helps your community but others as well.it is also the best thing to come.it was great.


i love recycling. it aint what i want. its what the people want . i want what the people want. so do dont give up on recycling.


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i want to ask the questin,how do you feel about the recycling age. if your life is lacking success you are not doing what you are expected to do. you have no idea whether others are commited to helping you and how and what they expect to gain.there are many things that can help out the community.family,work,stress and depression can help you out


recycling is a very important asset to earth.





recycling is a very important asset to earth. by recyclin you can save the ozone layer,you can save many homes as well.there are many recyclable objects such as paper,aluminum cans and strap metal.


paper and plastic is a very important benefit to this world in todays society.they are recycled so that they can be used daily.statistics show that only fourty five percent of the worlds population recycles paper and plastic. paper is used overand over to make other paper to write on. paper and plastic both are used to hold groceres. they are also used to make plates and toys.


as you can see there are many good recycling factors that paper and plastic are used for. aluminum cans are another thing that can be recycled in the enviroment and community.it not only helps your community but others as well.it is also the best thing to come.it was great.


i love recycling. it aint what i want. its what the people want . i want what the people want. so do dont give up on recycling.


i want to ask the questin,how do you feel about the recycling age. if your life is lacking success you are not doing what you are expected to do. you have no idea whether others are commited to helping you and how and what they expect to gain.there are many things that can help out the community.family,work,stress and depression can help you out


recycling is a very important asset to earth.


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Friday, June 24, 2011

speech therapy

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on speech therapy. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality speech therapy paper right on time.

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· I sat down with one of the speech/language specialists in our school and kind of interviewed her about what she does with the children who have auditory processing problems.


· So when you have a child where you suspect some kind of speech or language disorder and in mine and Cindy’s case an auditory processing disorder the first step a teacher takes in the process is filling out a referral form. And to be honest, before doing this project, this basically was the only thing I knew about what happens in the process. When Cindy and I first sat down and discussed our project and what we wanted to talk about I said “ I think we should include a section about what the speech/lang specialist does to get the child services. Basically, what does the specialist do with the child after you fill out the paperwork. I mean for me it usually goes like this I fill out the paperwork, the speech teacher comes sometime later takes the kid, brings them back, them I sit at a meeting where she reads numbers at me and I shake my head, sign the paper, and then she comes twice a week to take the kids and brings them back a half hour later. So I am going to discuss the process for testing a child for auditory processing disorders.


· A speech/language specialist tests for 6 things receptive language, articulation, expressive language, language development, and auditory processing. There are separate tests for each of these categories. In our school, to test auditory processing, the specialist uses the PLS (preschool language scale) and the TAPS (test for auditory perceptual skills)


· The specialist informed me that there are other tests and that each specialist can use whatever form they like but that most districts, especially in the area use the PLS and the TAPS. The PLS goes from ages 6 months � 6 years and the TAPS goes from ages 4-1.


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· The therapist that I spoke with uses the PLS for the and 4 year olds. She uses the TAPS for K- grade. This was just her opinion. I looked at both tests and they are very similar. The main difference was that the Preschool test used more pictures where the kids had to point. (SHOW OVERHEAD EXAMPLES)


· I focused on the TAPS test and what I did was got the results from one of my students that I thought had auditory processing problems and the results of one of Cindy’s students. I want to just go through and show you the types of questions and area focused on for assessment.


Auditory Number Memory


Forward Reversed


6 � 4 � 5 7 � 4 �


� 1 � 6 7 � 4 � 5 � � 8 6 � �


6 � � 5 � 7 � 6 � � � � 6 � 4 1 � 8 � � 6


8 � � � 4 � 6 5 � 1 � 7 � � 7 � � 6 � � 5 5 � � 8 � 1 � 4


4 � � 5 � 1 � 8 � 7 5 � 8 � 4 � � � 6 � 8 � � 1 � 6 � 8 � 6 � 1 � � 4 � 7


� � 7 � 5 � 1 � 6 � 4 � 8 � 6 � 4 � 8 � � 7 � 1 � 5 6 � 4 � 8 � � � � 1 � 7 � 4 � � 6 � � 8


Total Numbers Forward Total Numbers Reversed


Auditory Sentence Memory


___ 1. The box is empty. (4 words)


___ . Gold and silver are metals. (5)


___ . The baby has a happy face. (6)


___ 4. At summer camp, the children go


swimming. (7)


___ 5. Rivers flow into lakes,oceans, and


other rivers. (8)


Auditory Word Memory


cat shoe ( points) box arm ( points)


kite nail pin ( points) map card leg ( points)


knife boat pen sack (4points) ball clock bug cup (4points)


desk sky jar man dog (5 points) pad bee paste store bus (5 points)


letter finger pencil kitchen ribbon (5)basket water window stable dinner (5)


Total Number of Correct Responses


Auditory Interpretation of Directions


__ 1. Draw / a circle./ ( points)


__ . Give / the book / to Mary./ ( points)


__ . Look/at the picture/and point/to the


house./ (4 points)


__ 4. Go/to the sandbox/with John/and


build/a castle./ (5 points)


__ 5. Get/a pencil from the box/on the


table/and draw/a person./ (6 points)


__ 6. Go/to the table/get/one piece/of


paper/and cut/the paper/in half./ (8)


__ 7. Get/three crayons/-a red/a brown/and


a yellow-/from the box/on the


shelf/by the door./ (8)


Total Points _____


Auditory Word Discrimination


D S


1. shut � shout


. bus � bus


. card � cart


4. sitting � setting


5. soil � soil


6. glass � grass


7. dine � dime


8. tree � tree


. mailing � nailing





Auditory Processing (Thinking & Reasoning)


Score Question Answer


___1. A knife cuts because it is?___________


___. What is the shape of a starfish?________


___. What keeps a dog warm?_________


___4. In what way(s) are a chicken and a horse


different?_________________


___5. What causes ice to melt?__________


___6. Why does a ball roll?_____________


___7. When two teams have the same score, it is


called a ?_____________


___8. Why does a rock sink?_____________


___. What is the color of the young, small gray


pony?_____________





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Macbeth

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Lady Macbeth was only partially responsible for Macbeth’s downfall in that she pressured him into killing Duncan which triggered Macbeth’s irreversible decline. However Macbeth himself and his relentless ambition would’ve been a strong factor in the series of events that lead to his death. On another level though, because of the witches meddlings Macbeth and Lady Macbeth were merely spectators to their own lives as fate (determined by the witches) carried out it’s predetermined and unchangable path.


When Macbeth decided not to go ahead with the murder of Duncan, saying, ‘We shall proceed no further in this business’, it was Lady Macbeth who persuaded him through goading him and questioning his manliness, ‘when you durst do it, then you were a man,’ to continue with it. She mockingly asked if it was just the drink talking when he suggested it, ‘Was the hope drunk wherein you dress’d yourself? Hath it slept since?’ She wonders aloud how he can hold his head high, being such coward, ‘. . and live a coward in thine own esteem . . .’ What seemed to be the crux of her argument however was that Macbeth had sworn to kill Duncan and it was not tolerable to go back on his word as Lady Macbeth emphasised this by telling him she would rather have taken her baby, ‘pluck’d my nipple from his boneless gums, and dash’d the brains out, had I so sworn as you have to done this,’ than go back on her word. She also tells him that if he does not go on his word than his word is untrustworthy so she will not believe him when he tells her he loves her as we see when she says ‘from this time, such I account thy love.’ It is clear from these many abusive arguments that Lady Macbeth must take a significant portion of the blame for Mabeth murdering Duncan, hence his downfall.


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Macbeth was, however was largely responsible for his own decline. Even the witches prophecies can not be held entirely responsible, as Macbeth’s over riding ambition existed long before the witches came into the picture. It became apparent that he and Lady Macbeth had even discussed killing Duncan before he met with the witches. We see this when Lady Macbeth says, ‘nor time nor place did then adhere,’ meaning that when they had planned it earlier they didn’t have opportunity but as they did then they should go ahead with it. This could well mean that Macbeth would have murdered Duncan without the prophecies and that the prophecies just acted like a catalyst in matters and totally sealed fate.


Order Custom Essay on Macbeth


Even Macbeth himself recognises that it is simply his ‘vaulting ambition’that drives him on to consider murdering Duncan. He can also see many arguments as to why he should not kill Duncan. Quite rightly he recognises that he will pay the consequences of murdering the king when he says that ‘bloody instructions . . . return to plague the inventor’ and that he might just as well take the ‘poision’d chalice to our own lips.’ Macbeth also acknowledges that Duncan is ‘here in double trust first as I am his kinsmen and his subject, strong both against the deed then as his host . . .’ This all shows that Macbeth is fully aware that what he is doing is wrong. Therefore he has mainly himself to blame although other factors do play a part.





Please note that this sample paper on Macbeth is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Macbeth, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Macbeth will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, June 23, 2011

microsot monoply

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW FOR R110


‘THE FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING’


Chapter 1 “Speaking in Public”


1. What are the goals of public speaking?


Order Custom Essay on microsot monoply


. Define stage fright, communication apprehension?


. Know and be able to explain the model of communication.


4. Ethnocentricity.


Chapter “Ethics of Public Speaking”


1. Define the different types of plagiarisms. Be able to differentiate between them.


. How do you avoid plagiarism?


. Know the guidelines for ethical speech making and listening.


4. Be able to discuss ethical issues of research.


5. Choice of language (name calling and abusive language)


Chapter “Listening”


1. What constitutes “poor listening?”


. What does the text suggest about note taking during speeches?


. Go over good listening techniques.


4. Name the different types of listening.


5. How do you explain the difference in rate of speech with our brain’s ability to process?


Chapter 4 “Selecting A Topic and A Purpose”


1. Identify parts to developing a speech. What do you do first, second, etc?


. Be able to define specific purpose, central idea, general purpose etc.


. Be sure you could pick out a well-written specific purpose, central idea, and general purpose, etc.





Chapter 5 “Analyzing the Audience”


1. What is the primary purpose of speechmaking?


. How do you determine how long a speech should be?


. Look over audience adaptation and the use of surveys.


4. Define egocentric.


5. Define and understand the use of demographics.


6. Name the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a specific topic.


Chapter 6 “Gathering Materials”


1. Should you ever cite from an abstract?


. How do you correctly use quotations, paraphrasing and your own ideas when putting your speech together? How does this correlate with how you take your research notes?


. How do you assess the soundness of documents found on the World Wide Web?


4. Identify The Statistical Abstract of the U.S., Oxford English Dictionary, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature


5. What is the best way to search a topic on the World Wide Web?


6. What type of preparation should you do for a research interview?


Chapter 7 “Supporting Your Ideas”


1. Explain statistical averaging. Know the difference between mean and median.


. Be able to identify and define the different type of speaking techniques


a. Examples


b. Statistics


c. Analogies


d. Hypothetical examples


e. Peer testimony


f. Paraphrasing


g. Direct quotations


Chapter 8 “Organizing the Body of the Speech”


1. Be able to identify and define the following organizational patterns


a. Chronological


b. Spatial


c. Comparative advantage


d. Problem-solution


e. Cause � effect


. Why use an outline at all?


. Be able to identify and define the following


a. Internal previews


b. Internal summaries


c. Signposts


d. Transitions


Chapter “Beginning and Ending the Speech”


1. Look over how to put together an introduction and conclusion. Identify different techniques for each.


. When does your text suggest you write your introduction?


. How does a speaker establish credibility? What is it?


Chapter 10 “Outlining the Speech”


1. What is the difference (according to your text) between a speaking outline and a preparation outline?


Chapter 11 “Using Language”


1. What does our choice of language do for our speeches?


. Be able to recognize and define


a. Connotative and denotative words


b. Antithesis


c. Parallelism


d. Simile


e. Metaphor


f. Repetition


g. Alliteration


h. Types of reasonings





Chapter 1 “Delivery”


Know


1. Direct eye contact � how much?


. Dialects


. Articulation


4. Pronunciation


5. Pitch


6. Rate


7. Extemporaneous speaking


8. Impromptu speaking


. Vocal variety


10. Vocalized pauses


11. Intonation


1. Inflection


1. Rhythm


14. Non verbal


Chapter 1 “Using Visual Aids”


1. Use of visual aids � what’s right, what’s not?


. Use of multimedia equipment � font choice, graphs, charts, etc. When to use what.


. How do you decide what to use for a visual aid?


Chapter 14 “Speaking to Inform”


1. What are the barriers to effective informative speaking?


. Know the guidelines for informative speaking.


. Know the different types of informative speeches.


Chapter 15 “Speaking to Persuade”


1. What is audience adaptation?


. Identify and be able to recognize the Monroe Motivated Sequence.


. Know the difference between persuasive speeches of fact, value and policy.


4. Know the three basic issues that need to be discussed when dealing with a persuasive policy speech.


Chapter 16 “Methods of Persuasion”


1. What are some factors, which affect the credibility of persuasive speakers?


. Know the types of reasoning


a. causal


b. Reasoning from principle


c. Reasoning from specific instances


d. Emotional reasoning


e. Analogical reasoning


f. General to specific


. Use of emotional appeals. When, How much?


4. Fallacies. Be able to define and recognize


a. Red herring


b. Ad hominem


c. Hasty generalization


d. Slippery slope


e. Either/or


f. False cause


5. Aristotle and ethos, pathos and logos.


Chapter 17 “Speaking on Special Occasions”


l. Know the types of speeches for special occasions and the guidelines for each. FINAL EXAM REVIEW FOR R110


‘THE FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING’


Chapter 1 “Speaking in Public”


1. What are the goals of public speaking?


. Define stage fright, communication apprehension?


. Know and be able to explain the model of communication.


4. Ethnocentricity.


Chapter “Ethics of Public Speaking”


1. Define the different types of plagiarisms. Be able to differentiate between them.


. How do you avoid plagiarism?


. Know the guidelines for ethical speech making and listening.


4. Be able to discuss ethical issues of research.


5. Choice of language (name calling and abusive language)


Chapter “Listening”


1. What constitutes “poor listening?”


. What does the text suggest about note taking during speeches?


. Go over good listening techniques.


4. Name the different types of listening.


5. How do you explain the difference in rate of speech with our brain’s ability to process?


Chapter 4 “Selecting A Topic and A Purpose”


1. Identify parts to developing a speech. What do you do first, second, etc?


. Be able to define specific purpose, central idea, general purpose etc.


. Be sure you could pick out a well-written specific purpose, central idea, and general purpose, etc.





Chapter 5 “Analyzing the Audience”


1. What is the primary purpose of speechmaking?


. How do you determine how long a speech should be?


. Look over audience adaptation and the use of surveys.


4. Define egocentric.


5. Define and understand the use of demographics.


6. Name the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a specific topic.


Chapter 6 “Gathering Materials”


1. Should you ever cite from an abstract?


. How do you correctly use quotations, paraphrasing and your own ideas when putting your speech together? How does this correlate with how you take your research notes?


. How do you assess the soundness of documents found on the World Wide Web?


4. Identify The Statistical Abstract of the U.S., Oxford English Dictionary, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature


5. What is the best way to search a topic on the World Wide Web?


6. What type of preparation should you do for a research interview?


Chapter 7 “Supporting Your Ideas”


1. Explain statistical averaging. Know the difference between mean and median.


. Be able to identify and define the different type of speaking techniques


a. Examples


b. Statistics


c. Analogies


d. Hypothetical examples


e. Peer testimony


f. Paraphrasing


g. Direct quotations


Chapter 8 “Organizing the Body of the Speech”


1. Be able to identify and define the following organizational patterns


a. Chronological


b. Spatial


c. Comparative advantage


d. Problem-solution


e. Cause � effect


. Why use an outline at all?


. Be able to identify and define the following


a. Internal previews


b. Internal summaries


c. Signposts


d. Transitions


Chapter “Beginning and Ending the Speech”


1. Look over how to put together an introduction and conclusion. Identify different techniques for each.


. When does your text suggest you write your introduction?


. How does a speaker establish credibility? What is it?


Chapter 10 “Outlining the Speech”


1. What is the difference (according to your text) between a speaking outline and a preparation outline?


Chapter 11 “Using Language”


1. What does our choice of language do for our speeches?


. Be able to recognize and define


a. Connotative and denotative words


b. Antithesis


c. Parallelism


d. Simile


e. Metaphor


f. Repetition


g. Alliteration


h. Types of reasonings





Chapter 1 “Delivery”


Know


1. Direct eye contact � how much?


. Dialects


. Articulation


4. Pronunciation


5. Pitch


6. Rate


7. Extemporaneous speaking


8. Impromptu speaking


. Vocal variety


10. Vocalized pauses


11. Intonation


1. Inflection


1. Rhythm


14. Non verbal


Chapter 1 “Using Visual Aids”


1. Use of visual aids � what’s right, what’s not?


. Use of multimedia equipment � font choice, graphs, charts, etc. When to use what.


. How do you decide what to use for a visual aid?


Chapter 14 “Speaking to Inform”


1. What are the barriers to effective informative speaking?


. Know the guidelines for informative speaking.


. Know the different types of informative speeches.


Chapter 15 “Speaking to Persuade”


1. What is audience adaptation?


. Identify and be able to recognize the Monroe Motivated Sequence.


. Know the difference between persuasive speeches of fact, value and policy.


4. Know the three basic issues that need to be discussed when dealing with a persuasive policy speech.


Chapter 16 “Methods of Persuasion”


1. What are some factors, which affect the credibility of persuasive speakers?


. Know the types of reasoning


a. causal


b. Reasoning from principle


c. Reasoning from specific instances


d. Emotional reasoning


e. Analogical reasoning


f. General to specific


. Use of emotional appeals. When, How much?


4. Fallacies. Be able to define and recognize


a. Red herring


b. Ad hominem


c. Hasty generalization


d. Slippery slope


e. Either/or


f. False cause


5. Aristotle and ethos, pathos and logos.


Chapter 17 “Speaking on Special Occasions”


l. Know the types of speeches for special occasions and the guidelines for each.


Please note that this sample paper on microsot monoply is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on microsot monoply, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on microsot monoply will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!