Sunday, June 26, 2011

Elements of an effective motivation program

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Elements of an effective motivation program

1. Establish clear performance expectations

It starts with the managers role to set clear expectations and his ability to enable people to reach those expectations. The manager must ask if the subordinates understand and accept his performance expectations. The foundation for an effective motivation program is goal setting. Effective Goal setting has three components

1.1 Goal setting process.

Custom Essays on Elements of an effective motivation program

· The manner by which goals are established must be considered.

· Goals must be understood and accepted if they are to be effective.

1. Goal characteristics.

· Goals must be specific, measurable, unambiguous and behavioral. This reduces misunderstanding about what behaviors will be rewarded.

· Goals should be consistent. Inconsistent goals will create frustration and alienation.

· Goals must be a challenge. Higher expectations generally lead to higher performance.

1. Feedback.

· Feedback should be given. It provides opportunities for clarifying expectations, adjusting goal difficulty and gaining recognition.

. Remove Obstacles to performance

.1. A key ingredient for an effective goal program is a supportive work environment. After the goal setting process, managers must focus on the ability part of the performance formula. Ask the question - Do subordinates feel it is possible to achieve this goal or expectation? Help from the manager must include

· Making sure the worker has the aptitude required for the job.

· Provide the necessary training.

· Securing needed resources.

· Encouraging cooperation and support from the work unit.

.. How much help should the manager provide?

Level of involvement should vary according to what subordinates need to perform a specific task, how much they expect and how much support is available to them.

..1. A task that is highly structured and easy to perform it does not require extensive management direction. If a task is unstructured and difficult - more direct management is required and problem-solving activities will be seen as constructive.

... Expectations of subordinates is influenced by

· Desire for autonomy

· Experience

· Ability

... Capable and experienced employees feel they less assistance from their managers as they are adequately trained, know how to obtain the necessary resources and handle problems themselves. On the other hand, it could be frustrating for new employees or those with marginal skills to obtain available resources without help and input from the manager.

. Reinforce performance-enhancing behavior.

Now encourage goal completion by linking performance to extrinsic and intrinsic outcomes. Elements of an effective motivational programmed is based on two related principles

· Managers should link rewards to performance - rather than seniority or membership.

· Managers should use discipline to extinguish counterproductive behavior and use rewards to reinforce productive behaviors.

.1 Use rewards as reinforces.

Behaviors that positively affect performance - use highly desirable rewards. If an organization rewards all people identically - or on some basis other than performance - high performers are likely to feel that they are receiving fewer rewards than they deserve. Try to reduce status - call all employees associates or partners”

Non-financial rewards should also be included in effective performance reinforcing programs. By using the following guidelines you will get great motivational impact.

· Give the awards publicly.

· Use awards infrequently.

· Embed them in a credible reward process.

· Use the awards presentation to acknowledge past recipients.

· Make sure the award is meaningful within the org. culture.

.. The Strategies for shaping behavior.

There are three strategies for shaping behavior. Use Reprimand and Redirect to extinguish unacceptable behavior. Redirect and Reinforce are used to transform acceptable behavior into exceptional behavior.

..1. Reprimand.

Identify the specific inappropriate behavior. Give examples and indicate that the action must be stopped. Point out the impact of the problem on the performance of others, on the unit’s mission and so forth. Ask questions about causes and explore remedies. Discipline should immediately follow the offensive behavior. Focus exclusively on the specific problem. Focus should be on eliminating the problem and not climbing into the subordinate’s character.

... Redirect.

Describe and discuss the standards you expect. Make sure the individual understands and agrees that these are reasonable. Ask if the individual will comply and be supportive. Praise other aspects of work and make sure there are no work-related problems standing in their way of meeting your expectations. People reprimanded should understand how they could receive rewards in the future. The point is not to just punish but to change unacceptable behavior into acceptable behavior.

... Reinforce.

Identify rewards that are related to the individual. The likelihood that a reward will actually reinforce a specific performance-enhancing behavior depends on the extent the receiver actually values the specific outcome, believes that the reward allocation process was handled fairly and received the reward in a timely manner. Reward all improvements in performance timely and honestly. Promote intrinsic outcomes by fostering feelings of accomplishment and self-esteem in the subordinate. Effective managers understand that person to job interface has a strong impact on work performance. If individuals find their jobs uninteresting and unfulfilling, performance will suffer. Don’t assume anything!

4. Personal needs and personal motivation.

Murray’s manifest needs model proposed that individuals can be classified according the strengths of their various needs. He initially proposed twenty four needs but later scaled that down to

· Achievement.

· Affiliation.

· Power.

He said these needs are primarily learned, rather then inherited and they are activated by cues from the environment.

4.1. Need for achievement is defined as behavior toward completion with a

standard of excellence. This suggests that people with a high need for achievement are characterized by

· A tendency to set moderately difficult goals

· Strong desire to assume personal responsibility for work activities

· A single-mined focus on accomplishing a task

· A strong desire for detailed feedback on task performance

4.. Need for affiliation is dominated by the will to belong to a group and be accepted by it. These individuals are often characterized by

· A sincere interest in the feelings of others.

· A tendency to conform to the expectations of others, especially those whose affiliation they value.

· A strong desire for reassurance and approval from others.

4.. Need for power represents the desire to influence other and to control one’s environment. People with a need for power seeks leadership positions and tend to influence others openly. They perceive that control and influence is needed for personal efficiency. These individuals are characterized by

· They feel personally responsible for the success of their companies.

· They enjoy work and accomplish tasks in an orderly fashion.

· They often sacrifice own self-interests for the good of the company.

· They have a strong sense of justice and equity.

· They seek expert advice and not defensive when their ideas are criticized.

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