Friday, October 28, 2011

OBSERVATIONS ON DENTAL PROSTHESES AND RESTORATIONS SUBJECTED TO HIGH TEMPERATURES

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To improve the human identification process possibilities by the aid of forensic odontology. Particularly we considered to carry out an experimental study to learn more about the changes that dental remains, restorative materials and prosthetic devices undergo when exposed to very high temperatures, defining their behaviour and morphology with the aim to edit a reference table.


In large scale disasters associated with fire the damage caused by heat can make medico-legal identification of human remains difficult and as a result teeth, restorations and prostheses which are resistant to even very high temperatures can be resorted to.


This in vitro study present the behaviour and morphology of sound and filled teeth and dental prostheses exposed to a range of high temperatures.


Various specimens were used for the study (1) one healthy, unrestored tooth, () one molar with one previously class I restoration in amalgam and one added class V restoration in amalgam (specifically carried out for the research), () one premolar with a class V restoration of the vestibular surface in composite, and one with a class V restoration of the lingual surface with compomer, (4) one fixed prosthetic crown or bridge of aesthetic resinous material (polycarbonate, acrylic based products or composite materials), (5) one fixed prosthetic crown or bridge of metal alloy covered with aesthetic resinous material (acrylic based products or composite materials), (6) one removable partial prosthesis made of base metal casting alloys and denture base acrylic resins, and (7) one fixed prosthetic crown or bridge in metal-feldspatic ceramic dental systems.


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The tests of exposure to heat were carried out in a oven, and the specimens were heated to one of the six pre-established temperatures 00, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1100°C at a rate of increase of 0°C/minute. As soon as each target heat had been reached the samples were removed from the oven and allowed to cool to room temperature.


Two complete sets of samples (groups 1 to 7) were each subjected to each temperature and samples were examined macroscopically and then observed by stereomicroscopy and SEM.


The results table was edited reporting the macroscopic and microscopic findings for each specimen related to the different temperature levels.


Our experiments showed that dental tissues, prosthetic devices and restorative materials undergo a range of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics, but individual components can remain recognisable and identifiable even at very high temperatures. For example, at 1100 °C it was possible to recover and identify residues of amalgam restorations while the prostheses in metal-porcelain contained residues of cement (which obviously had not been directly exposed to heat since it was protected by both the porcelain and the alloy). At the same temperature the teeth were well recognisable and not completely destroyed thanks to their mineralised structure. Our experiments did not take into account possible factors present in real-life circumstances, i.e. the protection afforded by soft and hard tissues surrounding the dental components and/or devices, nor any other externally worn items. For example, the root of a tooth should be even more resistant to thermal insults since it is sheltered within the bone. These in vivo circumstances prevent direct exposure to fire which otherwise always cause violent evaporation of organic components with consequent explosion of the crown. This phenomenon occurred in our experiments starting from a temperature of 800 °C. Incineration of soft tissues and any other organic material can produce a metallic-coloured layer covering the teeth which can modify the real colour change. It is therefore very important to carry out SEM and stereomicroscopic analyses in order to identify the real presence of restorative materials, particularly when only fragments of the teeth remain available for analysis, for example the occasional finding of an endodontic filling material in a premolar repaired with composite and compomer after complete shattering of the crown was observed by the stereomicroscope. Furthermore, amalgam releases mercury vapour which reacts easily in the presence of gold or alloys, further causing colour changes to the tooth; this occurred in our experiments starting at a temperature of 400 °C. Only at a temperature of 00 °C the teeth did not show signs of fractures, whereas as the temperature rose cracks, fissures and fragmentation of both the crown and the root occurred, although in two cases, at 600 and 800 °C, the teeth fractured when handled. This highlights two important points first, that calcined teeth, being completely dehydrated, are very delicate, and secondly, that fractures may precede the fire because in real-life situations trauma is often associated with the high temperatures caused by major fires. In our experiments, once the desired temperature had been reached, the specimens were removed from the oven and left to cool, thus all the materials were exposed to a single, brief, thermal insult. In reality various factors can further modify recovered remains the duration of the exposure to fire, the way in which the fire develops, the rate of increase of temperature, and substances used to extinguish the fire.


From our experiments we conclude that (1) some prosthetic devices and restorative materials seem resistant to temperatures higher than those theoretically predicted; () when a restorative material is lost because of detachment or change of state, its prior presence can be detected by both SEM and stereomicroscopy of the surface morphology of the remaining cavity; () it seems possible to reach a reasonably reliable estimation of the temperature of exposure from an analysis of the teeth and restorative materials.





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Help

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Californication by The Red Hot Chili Peppers is one of the truest songs any songwriter has ever taken the time to create. It sums Hollywood up in one word “phony”. Hollywood is about money, vanity, power and influence. Hollywood writers create fashions, styles, and trends while promoting everything from cocaine, heroin and ecstasy to alcohol to smokeless tobaccos and finally the most popular, cigarettes. Smoking is one of the biggest props in Hollywood and while it’s creating a character for the script, it’s giving the tobacco industry, along with other legal and illegal drugs and alcohol, free advertisement.


Philip-Morris and RJ Reynolds are the worlds largest tobacco manufactures and in negations to settle numerous lawsuits have agreed to spend a certain amount of the profits from sales to advertise against their own products. GET YEAR, ETC. OFF INTERNET.


I started smoking when I was thirteen years old. I grew up in metro Atlanta. Smoking was never an option to for me, it was expected. Everyone did it, it made you cool and it usually helped to calm your nerves.


Ninety percent of smokers say they don’t remember why they started or even when. GET PERCENT OFF INTERNET People just start smoking, none of people I interviewed remembered why they really started.


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Frances Persinger, my mom, has smoked for more than forty years. She has tried every available aide to help her quit. At the age of fifty-nine, her health is starting to be affected. She has more sinus problems than she use to, she has to make more stops to catch her breath when she walks long distances, she rattles when she coughs and usually spits up mucus before she finishes and she has chest pains, like her chest is going to explode.





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Thursday, October 27, 2011

Assessment & reporting

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Assessment and Reporting Assignment Two


Part A � Quality Assurance


Quality assurance, while being an important aspect of the education system, can have both positive and negative influences on the professionalism of teachers and educators. Teachers as professionals can be harmed by Quality assurance mechanisms, by the actual process of picking apart the intricate workings of the school, through possibly unclear reasons or outcomes for the reviewing, and by inadequate evidence being considered for reviewing. Despite this, there are also some ways that teachers’ professionalism can be enhanced through Quality assurance due to the complimentary aims of the service, namely to help teachers and schools with their accountability and to generally improve the standard of schooling for everyone involved.


Teachers as professionals can be harmed by Quality assurance mechanisms if there is a possible lack of care taken by the reviewing panel when collecting evidence for the review. During a Quality assurance review there are a lot of activities taking place within the school setting, with people being asked to supply open and honest, though anonymous, evaluations of teachers’ styles of teaching or competence at running the classroom. It is important that information such as this is not allowed to be used or collected in a disorderly fashion. The teachers that are being reviewed could inadvertently find out what certain people had said about their teaching, which could have negative repercussions on the teachers’ attitude towards themselves, the person, and the whole reviewing process (Groundswater-Smith et al, 18, p. 1).


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A teacher’s professionalism can also be harmed by Quality assurance mechanisms when the purpose of the review is unclear, or when inadequate information is used to make hasty decisions and judgements about the teachers and the school. During the review process it needs to be made clear to the teachers and other people being reviewed, exactly what information the panel is going to take into consideration, how the information is going to be used to make an evaluation, and how the final evaluation is going to be used in respect to the school and community (Groundswater-Smith et al, 18, p. 1; Marsh, 1, p. 04). Also, lots of varied information needs to be collected and interpreted by different stakeholders in order to get a more just, valid and valuable review of the teachers’ and school’s practices (Groundswater-Smith et al, 18, p. 1). If the teachers feel that the review has no real purpose, or that the information being reviewed is not valid, then they are likely to lose faith in the reviewing process and be unwilling to commit to the recommendations of the review in improving the school and their own teaching practices.


Despite these possibly harmful mechanisms of quality assurance, a teacher’s professionalism may also be enhanced through the aims of the quality assurance reviews in assisting the schools and teachers to remain accountable, and assisting in ongoing school improvement. “Evaluation is a process which allows school professionals to gather evidence in an orderly manner, evidence which will inform them of whether their decisions and actions are appropriate and effective” (Groundswater-Smith et al, 18, p. 0). By using this method of evaluation in the quality assurance reviews, teachers as professionals can improve their performance within the school and classroom, and take increased professional responsibility and accountability for improving their teaching and the learning of their students. As Groundswater-Smith & White state (15) “receiving a fair, just education in Australia’s schools is an entitlement, not a privilege” (p. 14).


Overall, there are many different effects that quality assurance can have on the professionalism of teachers within the school setting. With a good deal of care, caution and quality input from various stakeholders, quality assurance could indeed be an invaluable process for all schools and their teachers.


References


Groundswater-Smith, S., & White, V. (15). Improving our schools evaluation and assessment through participation. Marrickville Harcourt Brace & Company Australia.


Groundswater-Smith, S., et al. (18). Reading 8 in EDU01104 Assessment and Reporting Book of Readings. Lismore Southern Cross University School of Education. 0 � 16.


Marsh, Colin J., (1). Reading 7 in EDU01104 Assessment and Reporting Book of Readings. Lismore Southern Cross University School of Education. 04 � 08.


Part B � A set of principles to guide teacher-student


and teacher-parent interviews


Teacher-student and teacher-parent interviews are an important part of ensuring that each student receives the best possible learning outcomes from their education, and that each parent is able to assist and understand their child’s learning in collusion with the school and teachers. Teacher-student interviews should have a valid, clear purpose, and provide opportunities for both the teacher and the student to speak about the issue, subject or concern. Student interviews are also a valuable lead up to a three-way interview between the teacher, the student and the parents. Teacher-parent interviews should also have a valid, clear purpose, allow time for both parties to talk,


While conducting teacher-student interviews it is important that the purpose for the interview is clear to both the teacher and the student, and that the purpose for the interview is valid. If the purpose of the interview is unclear to the teacher or especially the student, it is likely that time will be wasted skirting around unimportant issues, without any real conclusions or solutions being made. Also, if the purpose for the interview is not valid, time will again be wasted on discussion that has little or no educational value. As says


Teacher-student interviews should also be an opportunity for both the student and the teacher to talk about issues, concerns or other topics, equally. Too often interviews are dominated by teacher interaction, with minimal opportunity for input by the students (Brady & Kennedy, 1, p.11). To ensure that both the student and the teacher have ample opportunity for interaction, a set of questions or statements could be prepared by the teacher and the student prior to the interview, so that they both have the chance to ask or say what they feel they need to.


Three way interviewing involving the teacher, student, and parents are a great way to involve all parties in the interviewing and reporting process. In this type of interview, all three parties prepare responses before the interview, which the conversation will centre on during the interview (Groundwater-Smith & White, 15, p.71). This type of conference can be used quite effectively to assist each person in sharing their knowledge, experiences and information with each other, and to learn about each of the other people, and their personal interactions with each other (Assessment and Reporting Directorate, no date, pp. 1 � 141).


Teacher-parent interviews also need to follow the same guidelines as the teacher-student interviews, of having a clear and valid purpose for the interview. Reason . Teacher-parent interviews also need to allow time for both parties to interact, as too often “teachers… assume that interviews are simply opportunities to report with minimal interaction” (Brady & Kennedy, 1, p. 11).


References


Assessment and Reporting Directorate. (No date). Reading 5 in EDU01104 Assessment and Reporting Book of Readings. Lismore Southern Cross University School of Education. 14 � 141.


Brady, L., & Kennedy, K., (1), Reading 4 in EDU01104 Assessment and Reporting Book of Readings. Lismore Southern Cross University School of Education. 10 � 1.


Groundswater-Smith, S., & White, V. (15). Improving our schools evaluation and assessment through participation. Marrickville Harcourt Brace & Company Australia.


Part C � Reporting process and the school-parent partnership


Strong school-parent partnerships can assist to enrich the reporting process through forming a strong foundation for learning for the students, both at home and at school. The information needs of the parents also need to be considered to ensure that they are informed and participatory in all the relevant and important areas. Some ‘barriers’ or difficulties that may affect the formation of these partnerships are aspects such as the differing social classes of parents, and the different cultural or ethnic expectations of schooling.


“When all is said and done, mothers and fathers are the first and most essential teachers” (Puckett & Black, 000, p. ). The communication between parents and teachers needs to be two-way, and not simply comprise of the teacher talking and the parents passively listening. The relationship between parents and teachers also need to be based on a mutual respect for the ‘expertise and insights’ that both parties can contribute towards a child’s education. Parents also need to be included in the different aspects of the curriculum, and assessment and reporting.


When parents are participants in curriculum and assessment decisions involving their children, their investment in the educative process becomes more sustained. Their efforts to work with their own children are guided by mutually established goals and mutually understood curriculums (Puckett & Black, 000, p. 7).


Some ways to ensure that the parents are informed and involved in the curriculum, and assessment and reporting processes is described by Groundwater & Smith (15), under three broad headings. The information needs to be cyclical to meet the different reporting needs throughout the year, it needs to be contextual so that it is understood by the wider community, and it needs to be social in considering the actual processes of sharing the information (p. 67). By following these procedures, parents should be encouraged and enthusiastic about becoming actively involved in many aspects of their child’s schooling. This would enrich the reporting process, as it would make it a lot more meaningful, relevant, and understandable for the parents, and less demanding for the teachers.


Some ‘barriers’ or difficulties that may occur when endeavouring to create these partnerships could be issues of the social class and education of the parents, the cultural or ethnic expectations in relation to schooling, and the stereotypical views that the teachers may hold in relation to these aspects. It is indicated by Puckett & Black that the difference in roles and attitudes between socio-economic groups, namely the upper and middle class, and the working class, in relation to school and teachers varies to quite a degree (000, p. 5). Most upper and middle class parents traditionally have university degrees or other specialist qualifications, which mean they are more accustomed to and familiar with the technical jargon and formal practices used by schools and teachers while reporting. They also seem to have more interactions with the administrative side of the school, and their roles as parents match more closely with teachers’ wishes and expectations than the working class parents. Working class parents traditionally have limited high school experience, often leave teacher-parent interviews feeling confused and seem to hold teachers as ‘educated’ people in awe (Puckett & Black, 000, p. 5). This sort of discrepancy between classes could present a difficulty when trying to establish strong teacher-parent relationships, as the working class parents may feel uneasy about creating such a close partnership with educators.


Puckett & Black (000) also mention the differences between ethnic and cultural groups and their varying expectations from their child’s education. Asian-American parents, for instance, have high expectations for the length of time that their children will remain at school, and higher standards of acceptable grades for their child to receive at school (p. 6). These types of standards, and many varying attitudes from different cultures, can present a difficulty when trying to from strong parent-teacher relationships, as the expectations for each different family may be extremely different. What one family expects may be completely different to another family, which presents a problem in continuity between reporting procedures for the school, teacher and parents alike.


Conclusively, it is evident that strong partnerships between parents, schools and teachers are an effective way to enhance the reporting process. With all parties making an effort to overcome some of the ‘barriers’ and difficulties in developing these relationships, the reporting process could be a much easier and more effective process.


References


Groundswater-Smith, S., & White, V. (15). Improving our schools evaluation and assessment through participation. Marrickville Harcourt Brace & Company Australia.


Puckett, Margaret, B., & Black, Janet, K. (000). Reading 41 in EDU01104 Assessment and Reporting Book of Readings. Lismore Southern Cross University School of Education. 1 � 44.


Part D � Assessment and reporting policies of one primary school


and critical analysis


The primary school


The primary school being reported on here is a small school on the outskirts of Lismore. With only 6 students in the whole school, and two small classes each for infants and primary, the student-teacher interaction is quite good. The principal of the school is very community minded and rather proud of his ‘open door’ policy, which applies to parents, grandparents, and all stakeholders alike. Parents are encouraged to join in school activities and made to feel welcome to approach the teachers with any issue they may like to talk about. Both classroom teachers have regular informal parent-teacher sessions while the parents are picking up or dropping off their children each day. Parents or teachers can and will organise formal telephone or face-to-face interviews if they feel there is a specific issue that they would like to formally discuss. A parent-teacher night is also held each semester where the childrens’ report cards are handed out and their learning portfolios are discussed.


These learning portfolios are put together by the teachers, with work samples from each child being added weekly to the folder. Work samples that may be used range from published stories, mathematics test results, artworks, and any other pieces of work that the teacher feels may add value to the portfolio. During the observation period there was no evidence that the students had input into the learning portfolios, nor any indications from the teachers that they would be having any future input.


Aside from the learning portfolios, there is regular observing, testing and recording of students in literacy and numeracy. As students complete different chapters in their mathematics work books they complete a short in-book exam that tests what has been learned during that chapter. Using the outcomes from the tests, and other work samples from the work book, teachers highlight the appropriate outcomes that the student has reached in the front of the work books. When a work book has been completed it is taken home to show the parents or guardians and to keep for future reference.


There is also frequent literacy testing and observation, in the form of twice weekly spelling tests, running records and student-teacher reading sessions. Spelling pre-tests are given each Monday, and each student’s mark is recorded in a special ‘spelling folder’. Each Friday the test is given again, and this mark is recorded against the pre-test mark. Children are rewarded for having no spelling mistakes by receiving a special merit award. Running records are also used to assess the students’ reading levels. Running records are used at the beginning and end of each term to assess the development of each student. These records are then added to the student’s portfolio. They are also used when a student moves up a level in their reading group, to assess the readiness of the student for the next level. During reading time the teacher also uses observation to assess the students’ development in their reading, by conducting student-teacher reading sessions, where they read the student’s book to each other, and may also read lists of words for testing.


Other than these common practices within the school’s assessment and reporting style, there is no specialised policy relating to assessment or reporting that has been developed within the school, or specifically for the school. The principal states quite openly that they simply ‘follow the Board of Studies’ guidelines’, use their ‘open door’ policy as their main source of community interaction and reporting, and use assessment as an ‘ongoing process’. During the time at the school, they were also conducting a small-scale quality assurance style review, asking parents, students and teachers to fill out surveys about the school, the subjects and the teachers.


They also have quite good interaction and participation from the community, with parents volunteering to take reading groups daily and run the canteen independently each Friday. Parents, friends and other members of the community will sometimes come to school for lunch, and everyone eats in the playground together. The atmosphere in the school is relaxed, like a big family, which reflects somewhat in the lack of formality with which some aspects of the assessment and reporting process are undertaken.





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Story Reading Worksheet

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Character


Who is the protagonist?


Who are the other main characters?


Which characters are round (develop, change), which ones are flat


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(known by a superficial description or mannerism)?


Are the flat characters stereotypes?


How are the characters developed comparison and contrast, images,


description, dialogue? Do we know them through external reality or in


terms of internal reality?


Is there dramatic irony in the presentation of character?


Plot


What are the key elements we learn in the exposition?


What is the major conflict?


In the rising action, who or what is the antagonist?


Is there a climax/resolution to the conflict in the denouement?


Which is more important, character or plot?


Does the author make use of a traditional plot device the quest, the


journey, the test, mistaken identity etc.?


Setting


Where is the story set? To avoid ahistorical distortions, it is important to learn the social reality of the place.


What details do we need to know to fully understand the context of the story?


When is the story set? Is the time period universal or specific?


Is the tone of the description ordinary or bizarre?


How does the author make use of setting? Is it symbolic?


How does the setting affect characters, plot ?


Narrative Point of View ( How the story is told )


Is the story told in the third person?


By an omniscient narrator, partially omniscient narrator, or completely limited narrator? Is this narrator objective?


Is the story told in the first person?


By the protagonist or a bystander? How reliable is this narrator?


How would the story be different if it was told through some other point of view?


In what order does the story unfold and why?


Is there forshadowing? Are there flashbacks?


Tone ( the authors implicit attitude toward his character, the events of the story)


Is the tone sympathetic or critical, objective or personal?


Does the author make use of humor, satire? Why?


Is irony involved, and if so, about what?


Technique


Does the author make use of symbolism? Are the symbols traditional or subjective?


How does the author use point of view to develop the theme?


What is it about the imagery, the language, the tone that distinguishes this writers work?


Style is made up of all the previous items, plus syntax (sentence structure), punctuation, paragraphing.


In a typical paragraph, what role do these elements play?


Theme


What has the protagonist learned?


What has the reader learned?


In what ways are these the same or different?


What are the subjects of the story family, politics, work, education, poverty, love, money, hate, death, suffering, faith etc. ?


What is it the author is saying to readers about the subject?





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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Hope

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Hope


Without hope, we have nothing. I have learned this valuable lesson in dealing with my Grandmother and cancer. My Grandmother, Ginny, passed over in December of last year. Barely two months ago, and yet I still cant believe she is gone. Ginny was given two weeks to live after finding out that she had lung cancer that had gone too far and was throughout her body. It is a miracle that she lived for 8 months and we thank God for each day.


Ginny faced death with courage, strength and never gave up hope for a miracle. Her Doctors were amazed each time they saw her, which was on a monthly basis. You couldnt look at her and see a thing wrong with her. She looked strong and robust, outgoing and if she didnt like something she would let you know. But she always had faith that when her time came she would go to meet her Maker and be reunited with her parents and members of the family that had already passed over. Ginny had dreams throughout those 8 months of seeing my great grandmother and speaking with her, in her dreams. And one thing that my great grandmother always told her was to never give up her faith and hope. That without hope we have nothing. I believe that Ginny was preparing her for her return to the Lord.


As I stated before, Ginny passed over in December. It was the hardest time in my life. But the decisions that I made, where made in the hope that I was doing the right thing. And the tears in Grandmothers eyes the last day I spoke with her told me that she was ready. She was ready to enter the never ending plain and reunite with God. My hope is that she understands and forgives me. Without hope, we have nothing.


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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Scarcity

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Article “Upbeat Bush pushes jobs Initiative”


Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies the entire economy, especially such topics as aggregate production, unemployment, inflation, and business cycles. It can be thought of as the study of the economic forest, as compared to microeconomics, which is the study of the economic trees. In the business cycle when there is unemployment in the economy it usually suggests that there is a contraction in the economy, which is one part of the four different phases of economics. America has a President that has planned a 50 billion dollar tax-cut that plans to fuel the economy and will provide more jobs. May all the college students who have two or more years left be thankful that we do not have to find work in a job market like the one we are presently facing. I remember spring semester of my sophomore year I did an unpaid internship because people with master’s degrees and math undergraduate degrees snatched the position I was hoping to get paid for.


Society is faced with a pervasive condition of human existence, called scarcity, that exists because we have unlimited wants and needs, but limited resources. Right now our economy needs to get away from the depletion, which brings about lower prices on clothes, food, and low or no interest rates, because while consumer’s seemingly benefit from these sales or ways to fuel the economy people are losing or have lost their jobs. Manufacturers are taking less money for the products they produce and in turn do not have enough money to hire or keep as many existing employees around. We’re still waiting for some indication that we’ll achieve stability and then actually gain some growth, said Ayre. Growth is our need, but we have limited resources and that is why Bush is trying to free up more resources for consumer’s, which he believes is the opportunity cost.




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Monday, October 24, 2011

marble chip investigation

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Aim


The aim of my investigation is to find out how the rate of the reaction bettween diloute hydrochloric acid and marble chips will be affected by chngeing things, for example more surfice area expose to the dilouted hydrochloric acid. And to report about the findings I made.


Investigation Planning


Method


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First of all I will need to get out the following pieces of equipment, a gas syringe, a chronicle flask, a burette, a clamp, a 10cm cubed measuring cylinder, a set of scales, a beaker, a stop watch, dilute hydrochloric acid and medium size marble chips, we will also need a bunson burner a tripod when I am heating up the diloute hydrochloric acid. The experiment will be set up as show below in the diagram (for most of the experimnts).


I will weigh out exactly or as close as possible to 1.5 grams of medium sized marble chips. Using a burette I will measure out exactly 5 cm cubed of dilouted hydrochloric acid in a 10cm cubed measuring cylinder. I will put the chips into the flask with the acid and immediately place the gas syringe bung over making sure I lose as little gas as possible. I will then take readings at intervals of 0 seconds, and record my results. I will carry on doing the same thing but changing 1 thing as I go along. The things I will be changing in the experiments are, the surface area of the marble that is exposed to the acid, the weight of the marble the size of the marble, I will also change the temperature of the acid.


The Variables


The factors which might affect how well the investigation will work are


„� The temperature.


„� The concentration of the acid.


„� The surface area (size of the chips).


„� The mass of the carbonate (amount of chips).


„� The speed of which I place the gas syringe bung into the flask.


„� The time intervals used.


Safety


I will of course wear safety spectacles to protect my eyes from harmful acids. I will also stand up whilst carrying out the experiment in case I spill acid and it goes onto my lap. I will take extra care with a gas syringe makeing sure I do not break it. I will also make sure i keep the tops of the acid bottols firmly on and keep them in the tray and away from the side of the table perventing acid spilling all over the floor. I will be extra cautious when heating up the acid makeing sure i do not boil the acid because this would cause the acis to start to spit and would be verry dangerous, allso i will make sure that i have my tie tucked into my blaser so it don¡¦t catch on fire.


The knowledge And Understanding


The Collision Theory


The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker.





If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions. Higher temperature also increases the energy of the collisions, because it makes all the particles move faster. Faster collisions are only caused by increasing the temperature. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as the activation energy, and it is needed to break the initial bonds.


If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area.


This means the particles around it in the solution will have more area to work on so there will be more useful collisions.


A catalyst works by giving the reacting particles something to stick to where they can bump into each other. This obviously increases the number of collisions too.


If the solution is made more concentrated it means that there are more particles of reactant knocking about between the water molecules which make collisions between the important particles more likely.





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Mentorship

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Introduction





Teaching, along with the military service and the medical profession has been regarded as the noblest profession in earth. Teaching or a career in education has been popular among people with an academic bend of mind. Although teachers have become less noble and a teaching career has become just another career choice, the regard and respect that the profession invokes in the minds of the common person is still large. Often teachers leave a permanent impression in the minds of their students and have been instrumental in guiding students to achieve what they thought was not possible by them. Often teachers have the dual role of teaching and developing the character of the child. Most of the countries, particularly the European nations, face a shortage of teachers and candidates from countries like India fulfill their teaching requirements. In fact, the requirement is high not just for teachers, but also for school administrators, teachers aides, and instructional coordinators. The objective of this paper is to find out the role of the school administration in enhancing the productivity of teachers through the process of mentoring


Analysis


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The word Mentoring has its origin in the Greek Language. “Mentoring--from the Greek word meaning enduring--is defined as a sustained relationship between a youth and an adult” [Dennis, 1]. It is the process in which successful individuals go out of their normal routine to help others to establish goals and develop the skills to reach those goals. This means that mentoring is more like adopting a person and showing him a path, mostly a tried and tested one by a successful senior. The elder person always provides support, advice and assistance in times of need.





There are basically two types of mentoring they are natural mentoring and planned mentoring. Natural mentoring happens informally as in families. Planned mentoring on the other hand is usually a planned effort by the management of a business house or a social organisation that goes through a process of matching, selecting and training its staff, for a particular period of time. Usually in planned mentoring, mentors are recruited from corporate houses, consultants etc, to take care of a group of trainees. The matching process is the most tedious and time-consuming one, because if the mentor and the trainee do not vibe well, the very purpose of the whole activity becomes a waste. The process of matching a mentor and a trainee can be done formally or informally through interviews, comparative interest sessions and group or personal interactions. When mentors and the trainees are given a chance to choose each other, planned mentoring takes on many aspects of natural mentoring.





To put it simply, the job of a teacher is to teach. Although the job description sounds very simple, the job is very complicated because knowing something and making others understand it, are two entirely different things. Teachers are required to fulfill many duties. Some teachers see teaching as an extension of their previous career. Military instructors fall into this category. Others see a genuine need to contribute to the development process of the society. Still others see teaching as a process that fills the void of effective role models in the society. A teacher has to have a mix of adequate knowledge, patience, authority, and above all a genuine caring attitude to be able to become successful. The teacher must be selective and careful in using these skills. The biggest problem that most teachers face today is that they are not accepted by students and if the teacher is successful in this primary task, all other hurdles in their career can be cleared more easily. Mentoring, as far as teachers are concerned is a sort of training because it gives the teacher an idea about how he/she must go about performing his/her duties.





Pool (17) also believes that mentoring in the form of effective leadership can help a lot in grooming the young teacher to reach performance levels that are expected of them. As far as the employees in the colleges are concerned, mentoring assumes two significant roles. The trainee will have to perform as a future mentor. Hence, good practices of development are very essential so that the benefits are passed on the next batch of students in the college. Bad relations between the mentor and his subordinates can also be a problem that can affect the job satisfaction levels. They can be counter productive in most occasions due to personal problems between the two. This scenario is very dangerous in the education scenario because the mentor and the trainee are adults who may not follow authority protocols. It is in such cases that the reputation and professional skill of the mentor far outweighs anything else [Pool, 17]





Factors that necessitate the need for mentoring


Ill-defined role





In many schools, junior teachers and senior employees have an overlap of roles and this may be more pronounced as the responsibility of the employee increases. Diversity in roles have been a major success formula for business organizations [Hopkins, 001] However, such role requirements may be not in line with the individuals aspirations and personality [John P. Murray, Judy I. Murray, Cliff Summar, 000]. In fact experts have not been properly able to differentiate whether role ambiguity or role conflict cause people to leave educational institutions. There are often conflicts between new and old teachers and it is seen that the management mostly supports the experienced teachers even when the needs and demands of the new teachers may be justified. This sort of management behavior has been cited as a major reason for the erosion of confidence and enthusiasm in new teachers [Johnson, 001]


Status problems





School employee positions are not comparable to other jobs because the objective of the school borders around student development and philanthropy rather than making money or enhancing ones position... Many experts like Gabris (15), believe that status and gender roles play a very important role in employee satisfaction. In addition, the relation with different groups and their dynamics also define the job satisfaction that an employee derives from his work. Many teachers lament that new teachers are invariably made to deal with problem students and the amount of workload that is thrust on them is too much to do justice to the class. It is very sad that new teachers may have to deal with children having behavioral problems. In many cases they are forced to teach children from ethnic communities, where language and behavior patterns may be ambiguous. To build a relationship with these children in spite of the difference in culture is an uphill task especially for a new teacher.


Lack of training and exposure to community needs


Teaching demand a lot of temperamental maturity from the teachers and just about anybody cannot fulfill the demands required of such a role. Teachers without adequate training often have a significant problem in performing well [Ashmos, 00]. It is seen that most new teachers are assigned responsibilities that are opportunistically thrust on them. Assigning teachers with difficult duties with which they have no experience, is a common problem in most schools. Even a good training programs will be inadequate in these circumstances because the teachers have to deal with situations that are not listed in the training programs. Only a good mentor will be able to support the teacher and guide him/her through this difficult phase.


The mentor�trainee relationships can get out of hand sometimes because of close interactions that may ensue as part of the program. Most managements take necessary precautions before the launch of such programs. It is in such cases that the reputation and professional skill of the mentor far out weighs anything else to the company. “Yes, its difficult to find effective mentors as it is. Yes, many mentors dont believe they need any training or advice. Some will refuse to volunteer if they hear about potential ethical issues and challenges“ [Jones, 001]





Effective mentoring partnerships are goal-oriented and focus on the trainee’s skill, knowledge, and/or attitude development. It is very important that the trainee too have a plan of development before they come into contact with a mentor. Research shows that people learn best by observing experts and by being given assignments. One of the main role and responsibly of the mentor is to review the progress of the trainee and to keep him accountable for what he does. Mentoring is a mutually beneficial arrangement because both the mentor and the trainee benefit from the exercise. As far as the trainee is concerned, he will be able to tap into the rich experience and teaching strategies of the mentor. He can be assured that the techniques of the mentor would work, because the mentor himself is a living example of success. He will also learn to avoid mistakes that would have been committed by the mentor. In short, the mentor takes him through an experimented and tried path of success. The difference in age is a very big factor that ensures the success of the mentor-trainee relationships. The difference in age in itself is a psychological factor that influences the trainee and makes him or her automatically respect the mentor. The others side of the effect of age on the relation is that the mentor can impart his maturity and tact to the trainee, who is immature and just out of college.


The importance of mentoring assumes significance for teachers because often, new teachers have to face problems that are similar in magnitude and complexity to the problems that are faced by experienced teachers. Since experience is a big asset in handling these problems, a good mentor will be able to guide new and inexperienced teachers to achieve his professional goals. Even statistics show that inexperienced teachers have a high probability to leave the profession because of the daily stress and workload that they have to face as part of their profession. It was seen that most new teachers leave their jobs in the first two years due to adverse working conditions in the work place [Casey & Mitchell, 16]. Already the teaching profession is under severe stress and the number of teachers is already dwindling to new lows. In addition, the lack of new teachers has further strengthened the need to use the experience of old teachers to guide the fresh teachers.


Inadequate preparation also affects young teachers’ decisions to leave the profession. A survey of former teachers in Florida found that 4 percent of first-year teachers felt that they were “minimally prepared” or “not prepared” to manage their classrooms. A national survey of public school teachers with less than five years’ experience found that 6 percent of them felt that their preparation programs did a “fair” or “poor” job of preparing them to deal with the pressures of teaching [Public Agenda, 000].


As far as the schools are concerned, it was seen that mentoring programmes enhanced the skills of teachers and more importantly the skills of their students. Further, there was a significant reduction in hiring and recurrent recruitment costs that happens when teachers leave too often





The biggest advantage of having a mentor around is that the new teacher feels completely at home in the new school. The prospect of being answerable to the management is in itself a big confidence drainer. Many new teachers feel safe under a mentor because the mentor is a refuge in times of difficulty. Most teachers consider themselves as trainees under a mentor, and that position in itself is very soothing to them. Most new teachers prefer to work as a trainee under a good mentor and then advance as a teacher when they acquire the sufficient skills to handle the class. There is a lot of psychological strength that fresh teachers derive when they work under a mentor. Trainees do not feel that they are being undermined professionally when they are under a mentor. On the contrary, they are able to respect the skills of the mentor, which was gathered through experience, and appreciate the fact that they are still students as far as teaching is concerned. Teaching is not just the exchange of knowledge. Many philosophical and psychological factors that are involved in teaching are not taught at the teacher’s training sessions and have to be invariable gained by experience. Research and opinion polls have shown that new teachers turn to the Principal the most, to be mentored, mostly because he/she has the most experience, in the school. In most cases, when the Principal was ready to help them, teachers were encouraged to continue in the school. Beginning teachers identify the school principal as a key source of support and guidance. Increasingly, principals recognize a need for first-year teacher assistance and are attempting to provide it [Brock & Grady, 18, p. 18]. This proves that mentors need to be resourceful enough to provide that role that he/she is expected of, by the new teacher. Fresh teachers expect various roles from mentors. They may expect a role model, a teacher, a philosopher, an understanding person, a protector and a communicator. Only a good mentor can perform all or any of these roles to various personalities who come to the school as fresh teachers.


In addition to the fact that fresh teachers are not experienced enough to teach, the fact that a huge number of older teachers are nearing their retirement ages is a strong factor that has encouraged the government to start teacher-mentoring programmes. The authorities believe that the experience of these teachers must not go waste and that it should be used to train new teachers. In this context, mentoring has the role of maintaining quality in educational circles [Katayama, 001]. The district of Ohio has made a state sponsored effort to promote mentor trainee relationships as far as the area of teaching is concerned. The programme, called as PAR (Peer Assistance and Review) is a mandatory programme for new teachers and under the programme, fresh teachers are assigned to a mentor. The programme was started in 186 as a cooperative effort of the teachers and school administrators of the state. Senior teachers visit the classes of the trainee and maintain contact with them through e-mails and telephone. A confidential progress report is given to the trainee by the mentor who evaluates his/her teaching as well as their general skills. A survey revealed that the effort was very beneficial to the fresh teachers. A similar effort was started in 1 in California, which is known as the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) Program. Connecticut also has a similar program called Beginning Educator Support and Training (BEST) program, which has evolved since 180. [Johnson, 001]


There are many factors that affect the success rate of a mentoring program in a company. Mentoring will not be successful if done in a tense atmosphere because in such a case senior teachers will be more interested in self-development. They would be looking for ways to enhance their careers and stay ahead of the competition. The organisation must have the adequate number of mentors and if numbers fall short than required, the school must hire people than make do with those available. Another important requirement is that the dealings between the mentor and the trainee must be very confidential, because the basis of the mentor-trainee relationship is confidence. If the trainee feels that the process is some sort of an assessment or that it would lead to a confidential report to the top management, he will be less forthcoming and will try to hold back himself, which destroys the very purpose of the activity. Usually the requirement of the management is to see that the goals of the trainee are satisfied more than the mentor.


Conclusion


Job satisfaction among employees in the educational organizations is definitely affected by many factors like stress, work schedule, knowledge up-gradation etc. While most of these factors may be considered as challenges that are part of the job, the overbearing attitude of the school management cannot be tolerated. There are proven initiatives that help the teacher and the management to work with peak productivity within their defined roles. These methods have to be applied in order to ensure the overall development of students, teachers, and the school in general. Mentoring is one of the best of these techniques. The idea of introducing a mentor to train young recruits in a school can be seen as measure of risk management by the Organisation. Many schools have imbibed the fact that training with a personal touch, is far better than long hours of training in the classrooms. A personal mentor is actually an experience, which will motivate the fresh recruit to live up to his duties.





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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Day star

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Marchon Van Vooren


English 1B mtwth 8-1010


6-0-0


Essay #


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Daystar by Rita Dove


Daystar was written by a great woman named Rita Dove. Rita was an American writer born in Akron, Ohio. She then graduated from Miami University in Ohio in 17 and also from the Writer’s Workshop at the University of Iowa in 177. Rita Dove taught at Arizona State University from 181 until 18. This fantastic woman also served in the United States services in 1 to 15. Dove also was the first African American writer to become poet laureate. In a majority of her poems she shows how such moments such as daily lives make up individuals’ history and add to the experiences that human beings share. Much of Dove’s work concentrates on revealing the beauty and the significance of everyday events in ordinary lives. She used this idea on a very splendid poem in my eyes called, Daystar written in 15. Ms. Dove used the tone of this poem as well as the diction of words to create a unique feeling of sympathy for her poem’s character.





Every story or poem gives off a certain tone for the readers to catch. In this particular poem Daystar by Rita Dove, she uses her great way of words to present a sorrow, yet sympathetic feeling towards the main character. Some authors use the setting to work this idea but Dove uses her words and the feelings connected to those words to perfect her plan. For example ‘so she lugged a chair behind the garage’ (line 4). Here she uses words like lugged, which we as readers see as a negative yet gloomy action. We as readers get the feeling of the depressed, tired feeling given off by the mother. The mother obviously has had a long, hard day watching the kids, and probably has been cleaning as well. Another example of Dove’s word usage is when she describes the mother’s dream. ‘She had an hour, at best, before Lisa appeared pouting from the top of the stairs’ (lines 1-1). This gives us the one time excitement shared with the mom that she, during her busy day, could have a relaxing and happy moment. But at the same time Dove takes this dream away pretty quick in order to give the readers a sense of reality. We as readers see that in reality the mother cannot enjoy this fantasy for long, for her daily chores call to her. The reader gathers this information, not only by the choice of words from the Author, but also by the phrases put together by the words. These makes up the diction, which in its own way helps the author, give off their plan of how to make the readers sympathize with the main character.


The Diction of a poem is the way the author puts the words together to form a phrase, which not only provides evidence to the characters emotions but to the readers as well. The tone only can go so far. The diction of the poem helps maintain the idea of the theme. A good example of this would be where the mother chooses to set up her safe haven. ’She wanted a little room for thinking’ (line1). Here she ponders a way to find a quite place to rest while her chores do the same. Another example is how she sets up her palace. ’She lugged a chair behind the garage’ (line 4). Here we get the feeling of her tired, lazy body sluggishly preparing her palace for the quick 10 minutes. Then the last example would be her ideas that help her escape her world as it is now and start up in a new one. ’Sometimes there were things to watch- the pinched armor of a vanished cricket, a floating maple leaf. Other days she stared until she was assured when she closed her eyes she’d see only her own vivid blood’ (lines 6-11). Here she uses a vivid use of words that provide the readers with the idea of how desperately she urged for this time away from her daily life.


Rita Dove takes her idea of using a reality situation and expands greatly. By using her choice of words she alone creates a tone and establishes diction to back her idea up. Dove now has a poem where when a reader reads it, they catch the main character’s emotions. In the Daystar Dove gave us all as readers the sense of weakened endurance a house mother gets while living with everyday life and along with the chores that reality provides.





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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Animal Testing

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Do you thinks products should be tested on animals? Well, personally we think that products should be tested on animals. Reason being is because cosmetics can kill humans if the product is not tested on animals. Secondly, animal produce more babies than humans do, and finally, untested drugs can cause a huge effect on human lives.


We think that we should test on animals because if we don’t then some of the cosmetics and drugs that us humans make would most likely kill us, because we wouldn’t know how these things would affect our bodies. So its better to test on animal than having human died everyday from new products. Human are in higher rate than animals. That’s why some people really don’t care about animals as much as they do about themselves.


It should be acceptable to use animals for testing, because the test results enable humans to live longer lives. By using animal of mass productions instead of humans, we can both keep down over production of these animal and human lives at the same time. Also, humans give birth to a baby only once every nine to ten month period, unlike many animals that can have several babies in a shorter period of time. The normal lifespan of the test animals is not that long to begin with.


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Most people think that animal testing is more important for us to live on with our lives. If we didn’t test all the major products that we used, such as dietary supplements, then we have a greater risk. If companies didn’t test their products and they just put them on sale in major stores, they might cause a deadly threat to all people that used it. For Example, Fin-Fan, can be proven safe, but after ten years, they found that people who used it got cancer. So we should test our products thoroughly.


We should conclude this essay by thanking those who took their valuable time reading it. Three things I want to tell you before this essay ends are that you should test products before using it. Before you used the product, read the label carefully. If you don’t then your beautiful facial might ruin or your hair can turned bald. Remember that animals reproduce faster than humans. After all, some people wouldn’t risk their lives to create a new product.








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Friday, October 21, 2011

hills like white elephants

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The theme of abortion is predominant in the story titled, “Hills like white elephants”. The author, Ernest Hemingway, however has not mentioned the actual word ‘abortion’ throughout the entire short story but instead has used symbols and vague dialogues to convey his message to the readers. The reason why Hemingway probably refrained from using the actual term was because of the fact that in early 0th century, abortion was tabooed subject and thus couldn’t be discussed openly in public. Still the author wanted the readers to know about male and female perspective on this issue and thus chose to highlight the theme with effective use of symbolism and ambiguous dialogues. It is important top understand that Ernest Hemingway has not tried to show which opinion was right and which was flawed, he appears to be concerned only with the way males and females view this issue. The opinions of two characters on the controversial issue of abortion reveal the differences in male-female psyches.This may not hold true for every person but there are grains of truth which it appears are based more on psychological study of human minds and attitudes than casual observations. The female character to be a timid feminist who though knows what’s right for her, still fails to convince her husband that abortion is not the ideal solution to the unstable relationship. The male however is a typical chauvinist who cannot read her wife’s mind and is using all psychological tactics to blackmail her into doing what he thinks would lead to their mutual happiness. There are many ways in which the male and female opinions in this story can be interpreted but one thing is clear. The woman views pregnancy as something beautiful while the husband sees it as a burden.


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mkt mkt

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MACRO-ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS


Social/Demographics


· Women make up 65 percent of the customer base for service centers. Unfortunately, 80 percent of these customers are not satisfied with the service and repairs they receive, and 8 percent feel they are treated differently because of their gender.


· Two-thirds of the women who patronize aftermarket businesses are college-educated, and 15 percent of these women hold postgraduate degrees.


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· Society highly values the actual performance of auto repair, yet it does not value the process of auto repair; distrust, a lack of knowledge, and the propagation of bad experiences have made fixing one’s car an unwelcome experience.


· The market is here to stay; as long as these vehicles or any evolution of them are in use, repair shops will exist.


· A need for highly-trained auto mechanics has spurred advanced training programs.


Women are fueling major change in the automotive aftermarket. Hiring practices, consumer demographics and customer service are all reflecting the influence of female consumers. It makes good business sense for firms to follow this trend and adjust their services or products to accommodate them.


Political


· Federal and state governmental approval / certification to repair autos.


· Motor Vehicle Owners’ Right to Repair Act of 00 dealership must reveal repair information to independent auto repair shops.


· Increased foreign governmental pressure to raise auto repair standards.


· Increased automobile emissions standards mandate frequent testing.


· Federal and state governmental regulation of highways / interstates improved roads mean less repair needs.


· Clean Air Act of 14 mandated all vehicle manufacturers install emissions-testing computer systems.


· Impacts of NAFTA on consolidation and regional standardization


· Governmental restrictions on the disposal of used parts, tires and oil.


Changes in requirements to emissions and quality had a negative impact on small business in the industry as a whole, including additional time requirements, and the need for investment in appropriate environmental and safety procedures. These factors will impact on the viability of small general repairers in the long run and it is anticipated that some consolidation will occur. Changing requirements of the major insurance companies on repairers are also pushing smaller businesses throughout the automotive industry toward consolidation.


Economic


· Auto repair is an aftermarket of the auto industry; automobiles are necessities, therefore auto repair is a necessity service.


· During times of economic downturn, a slight shift emerges towards DIFM (Do-It-For-Me) repair as individuals hold onto cars longer and put off purchasing new vehicles; in all, industry is prosperous in times of economic upturn or downturn.


· Customers are relatively price insensitive the automobile is indispensable and the general public lacks knowledge of auto repair to leverage in bargaining.


The aftermarket is an increasingly complex and competitive business that is undergoing profound change. Rapid industry consolidation over the past decade has left fewer market players, while manufacturing improvements in parts quality for new vehicles has contributed to flattening aftermarket sales growth.


Due to a stagnant U.S. economy, overall aftermarket sales slowed in 001. However, an increasing number of miles driven by an ever-growing vehicle population helped partially shield the automotive aftermarket from the impacts of a slow economy. Sales in the automotive aftermarket (cars and light trucks) totaled $178.8 billion and are forecast to grow to more than $185.8 billion by the end of 00.


Technology


· Increased use of computers, information technology, and tech-savvy workers in performing auto repair.


· Growing trend towards “digitizing” the service provided by the auto repair industry IT and customer databases on the back-end allow for increased front-end customer satisfaction.


· Improved quality in auto manufacturing due to technological advancements could cause overall market to shrink.


· Greater advancements in vehicle computer systems create a need for auto repair shops to upgrade or fail to meet customer needs.


Technological change that incorporates the latest development in electronics, engineering, metallurgy and paint technology has repercussions for training. Post trade courses and shorter targeted industry based courses remain integral to the development of a skilled workforce able to cope with the increasing demand of new products and technology. Increasing use of technology in the industry imposes greater costs on repair businesses, particularly the mechanical repairers where more expensive diagnostic equipment is required.





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Thursday, October 20, 2011

Critical Analysis of PETA Website

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January 8, 00


Critical Analysis of PETA Web Site


The mission statement of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) is “We are an animal rights organization and our mission statement is that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment.” (PETA Mission). From viewing the web site, I find the organization’s principle mission is to make sure that all animals are treated justly, fairly, and respectfully. That is, that they are not abused, mistreated, or in danger of any cruelty. According to PETA, animals have rights, too, just as humans do. It is my objective to find out if the PETA web site is a helpful site to use for research and analysis material on animal rights.


The name, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, certainly demonstrates they are concerned for animals rights. It is clear the mission of the organization is to prevent animal cruelty in every aspect, from raising animals for food, to how these animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption, to helping animals suffering and dying in laboratories, on factory farms, in the fur industry, in circuses, and in other forms of entertainment. They live by The Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which is the federal law that governs the humane care, handling, treatment, and transportation of animals used in laboratories. (PETA The Animal). The organization searches to see if neglect or cruelty is present.


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The name of the organization does not imply that it is a government agency, nor does the web site address, www.peta.org. However, it does seem to receive a lot of support from celebrities. They use many high profile celebrity names, such as Sir Paul McCartney, Bea Arthur, and Sally Struthers.


As a result of searching the PETA web site, I observed some methods the organization uses to gain the trust of its visitors, which include guilt, compassion, and sympathy. The organization attempts to reach people who have a strong feeling in their hearts to help stop cruelty to animals. The web site targets people that want to help a good cause. These people are primarily animal lovers.


The home page flashes numerous ads about vegetarianism, pig farm cruelty, and animal testing. The ads can certainly make the average consumer think twice about the products he or she uses and consumes on a daily basis. They seem to place blame on many restaurants, especially fast food types, for the inhumane ways animals are treated. Pictures are posted of healthy animals throughout the web site, but numerous pictures of unhealthy and abused animals are posted as well. Many of the pictures are very graphic.


Unfortunately, the front page does not accurately describe the organization’s mission. It is covered in ads about animals, and they offer many links to other PETA sites, but the home page does not state the mission of the group. Nevertheless, the premise of the business is definitely not hidden as you travel deeper into the web site. The objectives of the organization are certainly made known to all visitors


No one particular source of funding was observed, although they do ask for donations. Memorial donations can be made, as well as gift memberships and property donations. There is even a wish list where people can donate items or services needed to help various PETA programs.


It appears as though PETA tries to reach as many people as possible with links to a wide variety of charities and organizations. There are many links provided on the home page and throughout the web site. One link sent me to a second PETA site, called PETA.org, along with sending me to web sites where I can purchase animal rights clothing, or if I want to, I can make a donation of money or old furs. A majority of the links are run by PETA, so they supply a wealth of information about PETA. The linked sites are related to animals in some form, be it how to become a vegetarian, to how to stop cruelty to animals, to information on how animals are treated in other parts of the world.


There are many sections of the site to go to for a wealth of information. There are tabs that take you to Action Alerts, Campaigns, PETA Kids, PETA Mall, and Donate Now. There is a guide on how to become an activist. There is an area that assists visitors in writing letters to newspaper or television stations by offering a guide to letter writing. (PETA Guide). They do their best to make it easy for everyone to get involved.


In using the search engine google.com, I tried various keywords to search for the PETA web site. The first keywords I tried were “animal lovers.” I did not see the PETA web site on the first two pages. I then proceeded to try the keywords “save the animals.” I did notice the PETA catalog site on the second page of the list of results. The third set of keywords I used was “cruelty to animals.” I still had no luck in reaching the PETA web site from the first two pages of results. The fourth group of keywords I used was “animal rights.” I found PETA’s link on the first page of results, third item down. I searched “animals” as my final keyword and found PETA on the top of the list. It appears they are trying to link people to their site the easiest way possible by using the word animal(s). Since protecting animals is their mission, I would say that searching the term “animals” in a search engine is the best way to find their web site.


One fallacy I recognized is the way the site tries to make me feel I should be a vegetarian, and if I am not one already, how to become one. They offer free vegetarian starter kits to persuade me to convert to vegetarianism. The organization appears to push the vegetarian issue on just about every page visited. I am not a vegetarian and do not want to become one. However, a lot of the information makes sense to me since I consider myself an animal lover. I believe animals should be treated decently and with care. In addition, I did not notice opposing points of view on the web site. It is all information related to PETA, by PETA.


The web site is very much one sided, in that it only gives PETA’s points of view. The site would be a good source to use to gather information needed on the numerous ways animals are treated in today’s society. It clearly states how animals are used for food, clothing, sport, or entertainment. The web site truly shows the compassion people have for all living creatures. PETA has done extensive research to show how badly some animals are mistreated by a vast majority of people. However, I would not accept this web site as a valid source of information because it plays to the emotions of the public. “The renowned humanitarian Albert Schweitzer, who accomplished so much for both humans and animals in his lifetime, would take time to stoop and move a worm from hot pavement to cool earth. Aware of the problems and responsibilities an expanded ethic brings with it, he said we each must live daily from judgment to judgment, deciding each case as it arises, as wisely and mercifully as we can. “We can’t stop all suffering, but that does not mean we shouldn’t stop any. In today’s world of virtually unlimited choices, there are usually kinder, gentler ways for most of us to need, clothe, entertain, and educate ourselves than by killing animals.” (PETA Frequently). As human beings, this is something we all need to remember.


Works Cited


PETA Guide to Letter Writing. 7 January 00. http//www.peta.org/alert/tkit.html.


PETA The Animal Welfare Act. 7 January 00. http//www.peta.org/mc/facts/ fsm1.html.


PETA Frequently Asked Questions. 7 January 00. http//www.peta.org/fp/ faq.html.


PETA Mission Statement. 7 January 00. http//www.peta.org/fp/faq.html.


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