Monday, October 24, 2011

marble chip investigation

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Aim


The aim of my investigation is to find out how the rate of the reaction bettween diloute hydrochloric acid and marble chips will be affected by chngeing things, for example more surfice area expose to the dilouted hydrochloric acid. And to report about the findings I made.


Investigation Planning


Method


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First of all I will need to get out the following pieces of equipment, a gas syringe, a chronicle flask, a burette, a clamp, a 10cm cubed measuring cylinder, a set of scales, a beaker, a stop watch, dilute hydrochloric acid and medium size marble chips, we will also need a bunson burner a tripod when I am heating up the diloute hydrochloric acid. The experiment will be set up as show below in the diagram (for most of the experimnts).


I will weigh out exactly or as close as possible to 1.5 grams of medium sized marble chips. Using a burette I will measure out exactly 5 cm cubed of dilouted hydrochloric acid in a 10cm cubed measuring cylinder. I will put the chips into the flask with the acid and immediately place the gas syringe bung over making sure I lose as little gas as possible. I will then take readings at intervals of 0 seconds, and record my results. I will carry on doing the same thing but changing 1 thing as I go along. The things I will be changing in the experiments are, the surface area of the marble that is exposed to the acid, the weight of the marble the size of the marble, I will also change the temperature of the acid.


The Variables


The factors which might affect how well the investigation will work are


„� The temperature.


„� The concentration of the acid.


„� The surface area (size of the chips).


„� The mass of the carbonate (amount of chips).


„� The speed of which I place the gas syringe bung into the flask.


„� The time intervals used.


Safety


I will of course wear safety spectacles to protect my eyes from harmful acids. I will also stand up whilst carrying out the experiment in case I spill acid and it goes onto my lap. I will take extra care with a gas syringe makeing sure I do not break it. I will also make sure i keep the tops of the acid bottols firmly on and keep them in the tray and away from the side of the table perventing acid spilling all over the floor. I will be extra cautious when heating up the acid makeing sure i do not boil the acid because this would cause the acis to start to spit and would be verry dangerous, allso i will make sure that i have my tie tucked into my blaser so it don¡¦t catch on fire.


The knowledge And Understanding


The Collision Theory


The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker.





If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions. Higher temperature also increases the energy of the collisions, because it makes all the particles move faster. Faster collisions are only caused by increasing the temperature. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as the activation energy, and it is needed to break the initial bonds.


If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area.


This means the particles around it in the solution will have more area to work on so there will be more useful collisions.


A catalyst works by giving the reacting particles something to stick to where they can bump into each other. This obviously increases the number of collisions too.


If the solution is made more concentrated it means that there are more particles of reactant knocking about between the water molecules which make collisions between the important particles more likely.





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