Tuesday, July 31, 2012

"A Rose for Emily"

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Reaction Essay to “A Rose for Emily”

“A Rose for Emily” was written by William Faulkner, and published in 11. This story is about a single lady living in a rundown house, with only her Negro servant Tobe to count on. The town of Jefferson wants money for taxes, her place cleaned up, and to get rid of the nasty smell coming from her house. Although most of the town dislikes Mrs. Emily, a select few have respect for her. No matter what time of the day it is there is some new gossip being spread throughout the streets about Mrs. Emily. The town finds Mrs. Emily as a burden upon them all. In the end, they find Mrs. Emily not only to be a burden upon the town of Jefferson, but a murder too. Emily Grierson was demented, selfish, and well talked about in the town of Jefferson.

Mrs. Emily was demented in many different ways. When her father died, she refused to accept it. She kept the dead body for days, until the town said they were going to resort to law enforcement. Only then did she let them bury him. After this little incident, the town tried sending letters to Mrs. Emily telling her she needed to pay her taxes. After many attempts that led them nowhere, they sent two men to her house. After trying to persuade Mrs. Emily she needed to pay her taxes she replied, “I have no taxes in Jefferson. Colonel Sartoris explained it to me. Perhaps one of you can gain access to the city records and satisfy yourselves.” (Pg ) After the men and her argued for several minutes she still concluded, “See Colonel Sartoris. I have no taxes in Jefferson.” (Pg 0)



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Hawkins

Not only was she demented, but also she was selfish. She made a trip to the druggist one day to buy some poison. She told him she wanted the best he had. Mrs. Emily told him she wanted Arsenic. The druggist replied, “If that’s what you want. But the law requires you to tell what you are going to use it for.” (Pg) Mrs. Emily did not reply, she just stared at him. The druggist sold her the Arsenic anyways. In this case, Mrs. Emily was being selfish because she would not tell the druggist what she was planning to use the poison for. She put his job in jeopardy without any second thoughts. Mrs. Emily felt as if she was better than everyone else. She thought she needed no reason for her actions, and acted as if the town owed her something.

Another example of her showing her selfish attitude was with Homer Barron. He was part of a construction crew that came to the town for a short time. Mrs. Emily and Homer hit it off from the start. For some reason they took a liking to each other. When it came time for Homer to leave Mrs. Emily was not very happy. She used the poison she bought at the druggist and poisoned Homer Barron so he could never leaver her house. No on in the town new what she did, they just thought that homer had left for good.

“Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town.” (Pg ) The town loved to gossip about Mrs. Emily. Her every move was watched by the nosy towns people. It was as if she was in a movie and she was the main character. People tried to talk to her servant Tobe, but he just ignored them and acted as if he had nothing to say. The whole town new about her buying the Arsenic.

Hawkins

They all concluded saying, “She will kill herself.” (Pg) The towns people also said it would be the best thing if she did kill herself. This showed that the town was tired of putting up with her and most everyone was ready for her to pass on.

In the end, she did die. The entire town came to her funeral. The men came for respectful affection for a fallen moment and the women just out of curiosity to see the inside of her house.

Mrs. Emily was like a landmark; no one could get rid of her. She was demented and very selfish, yet she lived a tragic life. Her only close kin, her father, died leaving her all to her self in a big house. She had a reason to be confused in the head. Over a long period of time she only was able to have two friends, one of which she killed. The other was just a black servant who she depended on. If Mrs. Emily would have moved on, and tried to make friends after her fathers death she might not of ended up dead so soon.

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Work Cited

Faulkner, William. “A Rose for Emily.” Literature An Introduction to Fiction, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J., and Dana Gioia, eds. New York Longman, 00. 8-5



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Saturday, July 28, 2012

Business managenment

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World is becoming closer because of globalization, and more and more business companies started to do the international business. As organizations become more global, the managers and staffs need to take on the cultures and customers of the areas in which they wish to operate. One of the major problems of globalization is how to manage cultural differences. Some may have relatively homogenous culture whereas others come from the less homogenous countries. When they are doing business, the managers will meet different countries businessmen who have diverse culture backgrounds. For example, some people have their evening meal at five o¡¯clock whereas others eat at nine or ten in the evening, which is just one example of cultural diversity. Obviously, cultural diversity plays an important role in the development of international business activities and in the problem of managing these activities.

¡°Culture is defined as an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of any given society. It includes everything that a group thinks, says, does, and makes-its customs, language, material artifacts, and shared systems of attitudes and feelings.¡± (Czinkota, Ronkainen & Moffett, 00, p) Culture is considered a key factor in understanding how organizations to work, which can connect organizations together.

Homogenous culture means the similar culture, and people have similar values, beliefs, regions and language so on and so forth. People in this country are quite pure, such as Japan. ¡°Diversity, a word which originally meant simply variety, has come to be used as a specialized term to describe a workplace that includes people from various backgrounds and cultures.¡± (Speechley & Wheatley, 001, p4) ¡°It makes a distinction among ethnicity, race, color, gender, and wealth.¡± (Parhizgar, 00, ) It means that people have different values, beliefs and assumptions because of different race and background, and everyone uses his or her own ways to think and do businesses, such as Americans.

This is a kind of challenge for the homogenous-cultured company to do business with the culturally diverse culture countries. ¡°The challenge for managers is to handle the different values, attitudes, and behavior that govern human interaction.¡± (Czinkota, Ronkainen & Moffett, 00, p) On the international scale, the ability to manage different cultures has become an essential business skill for the managers.

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Challenges

First of all, different languages are the challenge that managers need to face when they doing business. Communication facilitates international business transactions through language. Without languages, conducting business would be very difficult. English is widely considered to be the language of international business, but there are a number of versions of English, such as British English, United States English, and even Canadian English, and each with its own grammar, spelling and meaning of many words. Furthermore, there were multiple versions of Dutch, French, Italian and Portuguese. Assumed that how a Japanese and American to do business if they only can speak their own languages. When working with people that normally use another language, it is always wise for a manager to seek feedback to ensure that the words used have identical meanings to each party.

Then, ¡°religion has an impact on international business that is seen in a culture¡¯s values and attitudes toward entrepreneurship, consumption, and social organization. The impact will vary depending on the strength of the dominant religious tenets.¡± (Czinkota, Ronkainen & Moffett, 00, p) Religious beliefs can be one of the most influential parts of a culture and managers need to understand their influence, and learn how to avoid giving offense. ¡°Indeed the later years of the twentieth century saw a rise of fundamentalist Muslim religious groups gaining political power with very determined religious, social and political agendas ¨C something that is still growing. Even in the US, the politics of certain areas have been influenced by religious beliefs ¨C as can be seen in the so-called Bible Belt.¡± (Cartwright, 00, p5-6) International managers must be aware of the differences not only among the major religions but also within them.

Additionally, when the managers are doing business, it is important to understand a people¡¯s manners and customs, which can help managers to avoid making embarrassing mistakes. For example, ¡°Arab culture considers the left hand is the ¡®toilet hand¡¯, using it to pour tea or serve a meal is considered very bad manners.¡± (Wild, Wild &Han, 00, p4) If the managers don¡¯t know this, it will offend Arabic persons.

Furthermore, the legal issues are a danger factor in global operation. Governments are naturally and normally very particular that their laws apply on their territory. For instance, ¡°US managers operating in Europe need to be aware that European Union law is superior to the national law of member stares. Equally, managers from other countries who are doing businesses in the US may be unused to a system where State law is so strong, allowing, for example, the death penalty in some states but not in others.¡± (Cartwright, 00, p6-7)

Moreover, time is another factor that different cultural groups have different meanings. In most developed countries, time is commonly viewed as the clock whereas in less-developed countries, time is often viewed in a natural sense, such as in many parts of Latin America. For example, ¡°businesspeople often arrive after the scheduled meeting time and prefer to spend time building personal trust before discussing business. Obviously, it usually takes longer to conduct business in these parts of the world than in the United States.¡± (Wild, Wild &Han, 00, p46)

In addition, managing the problems created by cultural diversity increases the transaction costs when the managers are conducting international business activities. If cultural differences between trading partners are large, the economic and benefits of engaging in business activities are large enough to offset the extra costs of doing business with different cultures.

Additionally, people who have different cultures must have different social structures. For instance, it may be very difficult for a manger from the US or Europe to appreciate the different social structures operating in a diverse country such as India, which has the caste system and organizational hierarchies. ¡°In many parts of India, organizations operate on a purely western model, but it is still possible to find more remote areas where other social systems are prevalent.¡± (Cartwright, 00, p4)

Last but not least, differences in values and attitudes affect management functions, which is also a challenge for the managers. The cultural values have to be used in the management of business functions. For example, dealing in China, the international managers will have to realize that making deals has more to do with cooperation than competition. The Chinese think that building the good relationships is the most important thing, and then the transactions follow. At the same time, the attitudes towards business are quite different. ¡°In most Islamic social systems, business is part of an all-important personal relationship which exists to provide goods and services based on mutual trust and respect.¡± (Harrison, Dalkiran & Elsay, 000, p11)

Solutions

It is quite normal for the managers meet the diverse culture countries when they do the global businesses nowadays. Therefore, companies should try their best to face these challenges appropriately, overcome the cultural barriers and make doing business smoothly.

First of all, managers who operate in the global business need to understand the nature of diverse culture and how it influences behavior in the workplace, and recognize that different parts of the world may have ¡°different attitudes and value systems in respect of hierarchies, gender, the family, age, social structure, disability, religion, legal issues affecting employment¡±. (Cartwright, 00, p4)

Then, every manager should have considered the culture of his own her own organization, and the influences that might have on other organizations and individuals who may operate to different norms. Managers should have a very clear idea of how his or her own organization works and why it works in that way.

In addition, the managers should recognize which and how cultural factors influence the expression of business structures and systems. If they know these first, the managers can avoid the barriers and problems in businesses.

Moreover, the most effective method of ensuring successful globalization is for an organization to study the cultures in which it wishes to operate, and then to consider the reasons why certain things are done in these particular ways. The managers and their staffs should know other countries¡¯ cultures and habits, and the companies can offer some training about the cultures for staffs. For instance, companies that operate globally, ¡°such as British Airways, provide cultural orientation training for staff before they are sent on a foreign posting. A considerable part of that training is devoted to the avoidance of unintentionally giving offense.¡± (Cartwright, 00, p-) Both sides should give careful study and consideration to the ways that others work and think, such as the different cultural contexts, which is always the danger in misunderstandings, which will affect the building and maintaining of the harmonious and positive relationships.

Additionally, the managers should learn more languages to facilitate their business. Learning a second language may give them chances of succeeding in business. Learning any other language will help the managers understand the culture of those who speak it. As the managers learn the language, they learn how things are done where the language is spoken. Simultaneously, they learn the beliefs, values, and assumptions of that society as well.

Last but not least, the managers should know that they couldn¡¯t expect members of another cultures to fit into his or her own cultural norms. The managers should respect other countries¡¯ cultures, and learn about specific cultures and others¡¯ strengths to facilitate the businesses and communicating. They should know that different countries must have their own cultures. At the same time, the managers should be sensitive. Sensitive handling of diversity and a willingness to listen and take new ideas on board is a critical skill for all managers.

Conclusion

All in all, as the development of globalization, the managers need to do the international businesses with other countries that have diverse cultures. Cultural diversity is everywhere. People from different cultures share basic concepts but view them form different angles and perspectives. Therefore, there are so many challenges that the managers need to face when they are doing businesses, which means that different cultural backgrounds bring a lot of communication barriers to people, such as different languages, values, beliefs, manners and customs, working attitudes, religions and social structures, legal issues and transaction cost so on and so forth. Manages should respect and learn others¡¯ diverse cultures, and try their best to face them appropriately and learn how to facilitate their businesses.

References

Cartwright R. (00), Managing Diversity, Capstone Publishing, Great Britain

Czinkota M. R., Ronkainen I. A. & Moffett M. H. (00), International Business, Sixth Edition, Thomson Learning, Inc., USA

Harrison A. L., Dalkiran E. & Elsay E. (000), International Business Global Competition from a European Perspective, Oxford University Press, Great Britain

Parhizgar K. D. (00), Multicultural Behavior and Global Business Environments, International Business Press, USA

Speechley C. & Wheatley R. (001), Developing a Culture for Diversity in a week, Hodder & Stoughton Educational, Great Britain

Wild J. J., Wild K. L. & Han J. C.Y. (00), International Business, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, USA



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Friday, July 27, 2012

The WTO - Cancun Round

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The “unsuccessful” conclusion of the World Trade Organization ministerial forum in Cancun during mid-September of 00 has been a topic of much debate, with opinions on the collapse of the talks as varied as those who write about it. Magazines such as The Economist, with it’s firm pro-free trade stance, considered the outcome of the Cancun meeting as a debacle, whereas more left-leaning organizations such as Oxfam (as part of their “Make Trade Fair” campaign) have hailed the outcome as the first rising of poor nations (referred to as the “G-1”, as opposed to the G-8) against their wealthier counterparts in the field of international trade policy. As such, it is difficult for one to ascertain the effects that the Cancun round will have on future discussions without introducing bias of one sort or another. It is the intent of this paper to make an effort at providing a perspective on these talks from both sides, and the effect on those who will feel the results of the decisions made, both immediate and in the future.

The WTO was created in 14 as a result of major changes to the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) previously established shortly after the second World War. The intent of these organizations was to provide a forum where all nations who ratified the basic tenets of the GATT/WTO could discuss, multi-laterally, the “liberalisation” of global trade policies. Many nations (notably the original 50 participant members) maintained high tariffs and subsidies, which protected, both generally and in specific industries, their national economies from outside economic influences . The implementation of the GATT was successful in many ways in helping nations work together to reduce these barriers, and the scope was greatly increased as many more nations became full members of the provisional GATT body. However, the growth of the organization soon became unwieldly, such that by the 180’s it was apparent that a new body would need to be established, with a new set of rules and guidelines. Thus, the WTO was created, who’s provisions (developed in the so-called “Uraguay Rounds” ) were finalized by 15.

Of significant note in these provisions was the inclusion of an “Agreement on Agriculture”, which was not a part of the preceding GATT provisions. The purpose was to provide greater transparency into member nation’s tariffs on such goods as grain, eggs, poultry, dairy, and other agricultural goods . Once these became more transparent, it was believed that the tariffs would be much easier to reform. This was especially important for many developing nations, who were unable to compete in the markets of wealthier nations as a result of the high subsidies and tariffs maintained in those countries. The Doha Round of talks, from which the Cancun meeting was a continuation, was one of the first to take the issue of Agricultural subsidies to the forefront of the newly formed WTO.

Well before the Cancun meeting, the amount of subsidization that developed countries provided had been widely reported and examined. The subsidies and tariffs used to protect the agricultural sectors of the wealthier nations cost an estimated 00 billion US a year, creating massive trade distortions in the global economy. The average price for agricultural goods that farmers receive in developed countries is 1% higher than the global price. Specifically, subsidies for sugar and rice have reached over 100% and 60% respectively . This subsidization has in effect remained unchanged for over 15 years as well, and represents a vast drain on tax dollars in these nations, most notably Canada, the EU, and the United States . It would also seem that the intended purpose of the Agricultural tariffs in these nations, to protect individual farmers that would otherwise go bankrupt if forced to compete on the global market, is not occurring. An analysis by the OECD (the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) determined that only 5 cents out of every dollar spent on price support by developed-world governments ends up in the hands of the farmers themselves. The remaining 75 cents ends up in other parts of the economy, distorting such markets as land prices .

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However, the distribution of the subsidies is also questioned. A World Bank report indicated that in the European Union and the United States, the biggest 7% of farms receive over 50% of the farm subsidies . That is, the small farm holders are not receiving the aid that the subsidies are purported to deliver, rather the subsidies are ending in the coffers of the large (and politically powerful) “Agri-Corporations”.

The effects of this subsidization to the third world nations is measurable and direct. By providing greater incentive through subsidization to produce these specific agricultural goods, the global supply is increased, thereby depressing the global price. The end result is to place many farmers in third world nations into poverty when producing agricultural products that would, at “fair” global prices, provide a living wage. Notable occurrences of this phenomenon can be found in Africa vs. the EU in wheat and dairy exports, the EU vs. South-East Asia (notably Thailand) in sugar, and the United States vs. West Africa in cotton exports .

It was the discussion of Cotton exports that kicked off the Cancun round of negotiations on September 10th, 00. It has been estimated by the World Bank that without price support, fewer than 10% of America’s cotton producers would be competitive in the world market . In West Africa, over 10 million people rely on cotton exports for a living, many of whom living just at or below the poverty line. The West African nations demanded an end to the subsidization of cotton production in the United States, which The Economist indicated as “reasonable and justified” . However, the agreement that was reached during the first half of the Cancun meetings was considered a disappointment. Other than a promise to review the situation in the future, nothing was committed to, especially with respect to the removal or reduction of US subsidies. In fact, it was suggested that, despite the economies of scale and the relative cheapness that cotton could be produced in West Africa, that these countries diversify out of the cotton industry altogether . Indeed, the unwillingness of the United States to budge on cotton subsidies set the tone for the remainder of the Cancun meeting.

The discussion from this point onwards became dominated by the newly-formed G-1 , lead by Brazil, China, and India. Organized, committed, and representing over two-thirds of the world’s farmers, the G-1 represented the first concerted effort of developing nations attempting to steer WTO talks in their direction . The Cancun discussions were not specifically meant to address the issue of Agriculture subsidization, but rather multi-lateral liberalization of trade policies as outlined in the “Singapore Issues”, which specified four key areas of discussion, such as trade facilitation and transparency in government procurement, but not agriculture itself. The G-1 refused to negotiate on these issues until Agricultural subsidies were addressed. The end result was the cancellation of the Cancun round a day early, as a result of “Intransigence and Brinkmanship” by both the rich and poor nations.

It is at this point that much debate has ensued. Were the demands of the G-1 too much at once? Did the talks end because of the refusal of rich nations to address the issues that were most pressing to other countries, rather than the Singapore issues which were tabled originally? The resultant end of the talks is seen as both a “dismal failure” and a “resounding success”, depending on the source.

It is frequently noted that the G-1 was simply asking too much. The demand to eliminate tariffs entirely would require extensive negotiation by rich countries with their own citizens. President Bush had just recently signed the Farm Act in 00 which indicated that small farms would continue to be protected by the American federal government. France itself had just declared that it planned on ensuring that French farmers were an integral part of the Common Agricultural Policy , a European initiative that already had vocal opponents in such nations as Poland and other former Soviet bloc nations. In essence, to remove these barriers would be tantamount to political suicide for the reigning political parties. It is not surprising that these countries would reject attempts to reform their subsidized agricultural industries.

Also, it is important to note that the G-1 is composed of countries with widely varying existing trade policies. Nations such as India maintain tariff structures that are as restrictive as those of the wealthier nations, and their requests were seen by the wealthier nations as hypocritical.

Nevertheless, the failure of the talks to reach any common ground remains costly. The World Bank estimated that a successful completion of the Doha round of talks (of which Cancun was one meeting) would result in an increase of over 500 billion US a year in global income by 015. More importantly, over 60% of the increased income would go to poor countries, which would “pull” an estimated 144 million people up from the poverty line . The inability of both sides to come to a compromise can be justifiably seen as a missed opportunity.

Alternatively, the failure of the talks themselves cannot simply be considered as an abject failure, which it is often referred to as by politicians and pro-globalization pundits. Indeed, The Economist referred to the interference of NGO’s on behalf of the poor nations as “muddle-headed” and were as a group responsible for “raising (poor nation’s) expectations too high” . This may simply be an attempt to find a scapegoat for the results of Cancun, where the blame should likely fall on the shoulders of all participants involved.

Though the World Bank report indicated global increases in income for both poor and rich nations, the actual results may not have borne that estimation out. Not included were the costs associated with the market liberalization reforms that the poorer nations would be required to introduce locally. Many of these (and part of the “Singapore issues”) allowed for greater access to local markets by foreign “rich-world” corporations, whose impacts were not assessed as part of the report. Indeed, the Cancun round of negotiations were to be focused on these liberalization talks, and the requisite association with lower tariffs in Agriculture by wealthy nations was dropped entirely. That is, the Cancun meeting simply became a forum to discuss trade liberalization, which largely if not completely benefited first world nations, without any concessions in tariff or subsidy reduction. In this case, it is not surprising that the talks failed as they did.

Regardless, the end result of the Cancun talks is frequently hailed as a landmark occasion. The rising of the G-1 (since expanded to the G-) marked an historic change in multi-lateral negotiation at the global level. There is no doubt that not reaching a compromise on many issues at Cancun inevitably hurt the G-1 member nations in the short-run, but the long run effects have yet to be determined. The impetus created at the Cancun ministerial has led to more third-world nations being interested in joining the current G- as well, as the next round of negotiations loom.

However, some have indicated that the demise of the Cancun meeting (and the almost inevitable demise of the Doha Round of negotiations) may herald the death of the WTO itself, who European Commission President Romano Prodi referred to as a “medieval” institution in light of the Cancun meeting . The resulting effects could end up being more damaging for the world economy as whole. The United States in particular has bluntly indicated its willingness to “go it alone”, and will continue to pursue bi-lateral and regional agreements with other nations as opposed to global arrangements. Invariably, this will be of much less benefit than a multi-lateral agreement for members of the G- and the developing world as a whole. Indeed, the results of the Cancun talks may even result in punitive trade measures by the United States. One American Senator, Charles Grassy, stated

“I will use my position as chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, which has jurisdiction over international trade policy in the US Senate, to carefully scrutinise the positions taken by WTO members during this ministerial. The United States evaluates potential partners for free trade agreements on an ongoing basis.I will take note of those nations that played a constructive role in Cancun, and those nations that did not. ”

Whether this comes to something more than saber-rattling is unsure at this point, but it clearly indicates American political dissatisfaction with the results of Cancun. The long-term results may result in regional trading blocs, which could leave many third world countries (notably those in Africa) out in the cold.

Any result along these lines could prove Prodi correct. The downfall of the WTO and its subsequent replacement by regional agreements, which is already gaining favour in many rich nations, is measurably inferior to standard global trading rules.

It can easily be seen that the impact resulting from the early termination of the Cancun ministerial has far reaching and potentially damaging effects. The G-1’s impressive coordination during the talks ensured that it would not be held hostage by the decisions made by the first world. That wealthy nations in many cases simply refuse to compromise on issues of agriculture, so critically important to poorer nations, is certainly a major obstacle to future negotiations as well. That some sort of balance has to be developed is clear. If wealthy nations continue to pursue such trade restrictive practices that tariffs and subsidies promote, the slide in international trade will continue unabated. That agreements could be made on a regional level is of little solace; some of the major problems currently facing the world have been attributed to poverty. As Singapore’s Trade Minister George Yo has pointed out, the continuation of poverty in third world nations is seen by the citizens of these nations a result of first world policies . This resentment, along with poverty, is often linked to issues that affect every nation. Terrorism, disease, and migration have potentially disastrous effects to rich nations.

Freer trade undoubtedly has benefits to all nations. The next round of discussions, which is expected to occur some time over the next year in Hong Kong (and thus before the expiration of the “Doha round” of negotiations) could potentially bring the discussions back on track. However, the pessimism that prevails in many first world nations as a result of the Cancun talks may inhibit any sincere attempt at reformation. The strength of public opinion that the G- can rely upon in their own countries as they defy rich countries will only reinforce their resolve to come to an agreement that they can realistically view as advantageous for themselves. Whether an agreement can be reached during the Doha round remains unclear. However, it is plain to all that failure to come to some form of understanding is far more damaging to citizens of the third world than those of the first. Hopefully, the opposing positions are not too firmly entrenched that consensus is impossible before the next round of talks even begin.

WTO website, http//www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact4_e.htm

ibid.

Mary Jo Nicholson, Legal Aspects of International Business, pg. 7. Prentice Hall, 17.

Times Magazine (UK), http//www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-817,00.html

The Economist, Sept. 0th, 00, p. 6.

Times Magazine (UK), http//www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-817,00.html

World Bank website, http//www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/article.asp?id=06

ibid.

ibid.

The Economist, Sept. 0th, 00, p. 7.

Ibid.

The G1 is composed of the following countries Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Venezuela.



Patricia Hewitt, “Learning the Lessons of Cancun”, Guardian Unlimited (online ed.) http//www.guardian.co.uk/wto/article/0,76,1048078,00.html

The Economist, Sept. 0th, 00, p. 8.

World Bank website, http//www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/article.asp?id=06

The Economist, Sept. 0th, 00, p. 6.

Ibid., 8.

James Arnold, “Mixed Feelings Over Cancun Collapse”, http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/110844.stm

ICFI website, http//www.wsws.org/articles/00/sep00/wtor-s17.shtml

ibid.

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Wicked Problem (in Design)

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What are Wicked Problem of design thinking? Because each design project has its own intrinsic parameters such as time, space, and cost, it can be said that each project in unique. Because each project is unique there is no universal template in design thinking to solve all the problems which may or may no occur. In the past, linear logic of design problem solving was utilized as such a template. Wicked problems are problems within the design process which have no definitive solutions. Horst Rittel developed the term Wicked Problems to describe the design process and its inherent wicked problems. The traditional approach of solving designing problems as stated above are linear in approach. As a urban planner and designer, Rittel found the traditional structure of problem solving inadequate. A list of Rittel’s Wicked Problems can be found in Richard Buchanan’s article, Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. There is also a more comprehensive list of the same Wicked problem in an article by Dr Jeff Conklin entitled Wicked Problems and Fragmentation which is very similar to Buchanan’s article. Buchanan claims that “design problems are “indeterminate” and “wicked” because design has no special subject matter of its own apart from what a designers conceives it to be. The subject matter of design is potentially universal in scope, because design thinking may be applied to any area of human experience” (Buchanan, p15). Buchanan argues that design does not have its own unified house to stand under and because of the myriad of variables associated with creating or designing many outside disciplines claim that design is an extension of their own discipline. This, Buchanan claims, is part of the problem of wicked problems indeterminacy of design thinking. Buchanan puts it this way “We have been slow to recognize the peculiar indeterminacy of the subject matter in design and its impact on the nature of design thinking. As a consequence, each of the sciences which have come in contact with design has tended to regard design as an “applied” version of its own knowledge, methods, and principles” (Buchanan p.18). Buchanan is saying that the variables associated with creating or designing have no special subject matter of their own to follow. Therefore, no universal template equals indeterminate and wicked problems for the designer. The probable partial solution, since there are no definitive solutions, is to attempt to tame some of the wickedness out of each problem to make it more manageable. Dr. Jeff Conklin states taming in this way “Taming a wicked problem is a very natural and common way of coping with it. Instead of dealing with the full wickedness of the problem, one simplifies it in various ways to make it more manageable” (Conklin, p.8). Buchanan, like Conklin, agrees that the majority of the wickedness of wicked problems comes in the form of lack of communication or, as Conklin states, fragmentation among design professionals and various parties attached to a project. Buchanan states that there is consistencies in argument in design thinking, yet this cohesion falls apart in the modes of argument employed by different design professionals and may lead to confusion and more wicked problems. Buchanan says, “...there is persistent confusion about the different modes of argumentation employed by the various design professionals. For example, industrial design, engineering, and marketing each employ the discipline of design thinking, yet their arguments are often framed in sharply different logical modalities” (Buchanan, p1 ). Conklin states it this way “It’s not necessary to have dozens of conflicting stakeholders for social complexity to present challenges. In fact, all that is needed are representatives of the two fundamental polarities of design what is needed, and what can be built (Conklin, p1).

Who’s problems are wicked problems?, they are all of ours. On any given project we each have a voice and a sense of where we think the project is heading and how fast it should be heading, and the list goes on and on. For us not to be part of the problem yet part of the probable or tamable solution we need to communicate our needs and concerns properly and work within a group with one vision of a project in mind. Wicked problems are not just the designers or the consultants problems but they are also the problems of everyone on th projects. Within the design community there should be, as Buchanan suggested, a universal language or subject matter which would help to unify the various design fields and help foster a more solution based harmony in the pursuit of design thinking and the ever present wicked problems.



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References

Buchanan, Richard & Margolin Victor. The Idea of Design. A Design Issue Reader. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England. 15

Conklin, Jeff Dr. Wicked Problems and Fragmentation Http//www.cognexus.org/wpf/wpf/htm. (1/0/00)

References

Buchanan, Richard & Margolin Victor. The Idea of Design. A Design Issue Reader. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England. 15

Conklin, Jeff Dr. Wicked Problems and Fragmentation Http//www.cognexus.org/wpf/wpf/htm. (1/0/00)

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Wednesday, July 25, 2012

leaders born

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Whether it did M&S any good, who knows? But ask any leader for their opinion on what makes for success, and theyll gladly tell you! Despite the old adage that good leaders are born and not made, it is now more widely accepted that the skills of leadership can and should be learnt and developed.Team leaders are often recruited for their operational expertise first and foremost, and not for their management or leadership skills. This is partly because of the emphasis on flatter, team-based structures, but also because it often makes sense to offer promotion to experienced members of staff during times of expansion and growth.

Unfortunately, whilst many people are keen to take on the additional responsibility, authority, and remuneration, it is risky doing so without ensuring adequate support and training. A good and experienced team leader will often make their role look effortless, but no doubt it took them a long time, many hurdles and a lot of stress to get there. Once appointed, first time leaders are often required to combine their new leadership role with existing full-time operational responsibilities.

It is up to leaders to ensure employee satisfaction by providing each of these factors. Leaders must determine specifically what will motivate their employees, and seek out ways to accomplish this. Four things that motivate people are responsibility, rewards, relationships, and reasons. In other words, people want responsibilities that allow them to use their talents and even stretch themselves; they also want to be rewarded for their efforts, even if it comes in the form of a simple pat on the back. People are motivated when they are coached to continue focusing on their goals, and this is where the relationship factor enters into the picture; leaders must develop relationships with their followers, rather than being unapproachable and shutting themselves off behind an office door. Finally, people want to know why they are being asked to do something and how their efforts will make a difference in the big picture. Doing meaningful work is an incredible motivator.

Leaders must be able to make people want to follow them - not out of fear, but out of trust, hope for success, excitement, or the promise of opportunity. Leaders should be able to create an aesthetic vision that inspires people with an ideal of what can be achieved (Maccoby, PG).

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Maccoby says there are two kinds of leaders - strategic and operational. Strategic leaders create the organizations vision, while operational leaders implement the vision.

Integrity is not only a personal virtue but also an organizational strength (Goleman, PG). In order to gain followers, a leader must first gain trust. This can be accomplished when a leader practices what he preaches and is honest and forthright at all times. In the business world, this concept has perhaps become more critical than ever in recent years, due to the current corporate climate. Companies are reorganizing, restructuring, downsizing, rightsizing, merging, and any number of other methods of reconfiguration.

Many people believe that leaders are born, and not made. Presumably new born leaders behave in a different way from other babies. It is almost worth a trip to the maternity hospital to check this out!

In reality, this belief is more often than not an excuse, to justify a lack of leadership behaviour in themselves. Of course we can all learn to be leaders, we can change our beliefs, our behaviours and our personalities. If we could not, our attitudes would be the same when we are 0, 40 and 60.

There are no born leaders, however we are all born with unique strengths that help us in our leadership journeys - they are within us, and with most people, they stay within. The notion that leaders are born, and others therefore will never be leaders, is illogical, depressing and seriously limiting to every human being. The idea suggests that the moment babies are born they either have the genetics to be a leader, or they do not. This argument would be fine if the definition of leadership, and leaders, had been constant for the past fifty years, but it is not. Indeed, more has been discovered about leadership and human behaviour in the last twenty years than in the previous thousand.

Furthermore, the born argument does not take into account the effect that experience and learning has on our personalities, behaviours and on our inner selves.

Leadership is a skill and a habit. Like most skills and habits, one that improves with practice. As we become more skilled - the habit takes over - we worry less about the mechanics of doing it and focus more on the outcomes to be achieved.

And so it is with personality, much of personality is a set of responses that have become habits. Often these were developed with little forethought or awareness in school or at home. Presented with a challenge we try a response, if it works we remember it and use it again. If it works often enough, we use it without too much thought and it becomes a habit. Take any set of habits, mix and stir, and we create our own unique approach to life.

But like any habit, we can choose to change. Much long-lasting negative behaviour can be altered.



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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

"Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn't Call the Police"

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Not one person telephoned the police during the assault; one witness called after the woman was dead (Gansberg 86). Martin Gansbergs essay, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didnt Call the Police, describes a true account of witnesses allowing the death of a neighbor and friend. In this essay Gasberg uses various techniques, including language and tone, to catch the readers attention.

Martin Gansberg begins his essay by luring the reader through the use of manipulative techniques the author attempts to make the reader angry, shows the reader an apathetic public, and also forces the reader to consider what he/she would do. Chief Inspector Lussen said, If we had been called when he first attacked, the woman might not be dead now, (Gansberg 86). Gansbergs use of this dialogue works specifically to try to make the reader furious. The author then demonstrates how much time elapses and how many times the killer leaves and returns to prove that the woman dies because no one steps in. In addition, Gansberg reveals that Miss Genovese is not a stranger to the witnesses or an unknown neighbor; she is a friend who most knew as Kitty. Still, Gansberg shows an apathetic public by emphasizing that not just one person, but several hear and even watch this heinous crime without making the effort to help. There are no calls to the police and no heroic attempts to aid, simply Gansberg asserts, because no one wants to become involved. We went to the window to see what was happening, he said, but the light from our bedroom made it difficult to see the street. The wife still apprehensive, added I put out the light and we were able to see better,(Gansberg 88). Gansbergs characterization of the couple reveals that they even turn out a light to accommodate their view. Next, Gansbergs technique of writing leads the reader to wonder what he/she would do if he/she ever faced the same situation. For more than half an hour 8 respectable, law-abiding citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens, (Gansberg 86). After the reader finishes the story and realizes the outcome, the reader reflects back to this initial passage and automatically judges his own character according to the behavior of these law-abiding citizens, asking; what would I do?

In addition, Gansbergs language to grasps the readers attention in terms of specific details, emotional language, and factual concrete images. First, the details of the crime scene. Gansberg specifically states the color of Miss Genovese car, the location in which she parks and the approximate distance her parking space is from her apartment. Gansberg also incorporates dialogue so the reader can feel the emotions of Miss Genovese. Im dying! she shrieked. Im dying! (Gansberg 87). These words alone display how frightened Miss Genovese is, which allows the reader to also experience some of her fear. His final use of language is factual language, which allows the reader to recall the events as they happen. For example, Gansberg recounts what the police confirm as the exact times the attack begins and the moment it ends in death.

The final method that cathces a readers attention is through Gansbergs use of changing tones; the author displays a mixture of sarcastic, authoritative, and objective tones. But the Kew Gardens slaying baffles him not because it is a murder, but because the good people failed to call the police (Gansberg 86). Gansbergs use of sarcasm towards good people is effective, because the reader also contemplates why none of these good people help in some way. Quickly the reader forms and opinion of the foolishness of these witnesses. Next Gansbergs use of specific time frames as; It was 45 a.m. when the ambulance arrived to take the body of Miss Genovese, and his addition of excerpts from police reports, allows him to set an authoratative tone. The last type of tone Gansberg demonstrates appears to be objective. The author projects this false objectivity by sticking to the facts and times throughout the entire essay. He also never directly states his very clear opinion. It was 50 by the time the police received their first call, from a man who was a neighbor of Miss Genovese. In two minutes they were at the scene, (Gansberg 87).

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In conclusion, throughout this essay language and tone become the authors primary method of capturing the readers attention. Martin Gansberg wrote the essay, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didnt Call the Police in 164. After the publication of this article in a newspaper, one would think that people would be more willing to help, but even today events like this still occur. Gansberg, Martin. Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didnt Call the Police. Patterns for College Writing A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. 7th ed. Ed. Laurie, G Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. New York; St. Martins 18.

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Sunday, July 22, 2012

Defining Courage

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The word courage is nor easily defined. To some people, courage is seen in everyday acts of bravery. To others, however, courage is a much more complex and profound characteristic.

Having courage means to confront one’s fears, and to stand up for one’s beliefs, no matter what the circumstance. It is not necessary to be a super-hero in order to be courageous. The simple things that may seem rather easy to do for most people can be quite difficult for others. Getting over one’s fear or nervousness takes a great amount of courage, and should be seen as equally important as physical acts of courage or heroism.

Courage is being honest, in all things, to all people, and most importantly to oneself. Courage requires a person to do what they believe is right at all times, even in the midst of its consequences. Acts of courage go unnoticed everyday. The television and radio tell of lives being saved from natural disasters and atrocious people, but fail to mention how much willpower and courage it takes to not be influenced by peer pressures or stresses in life. Courage is a very strong trait to posses, and is a very good indicator of an honest person.

Courage could be defined as unwavering loyalty and dedication to duty, especially in the line of fire. Courage is also accepted as being true to oneself, whether one makes consistent choices or not. Consistent and inconsistent are labels that others will assign to a person, depending on whether they like what they are doing or not. But is it better to be make consistent decisions and be miserable in order to satisfy others? That is a choice each person has to make, as an individual. Some people give and give until they wear themselves out. They are too busy trying to satisfy the needs and demands of others, that they end up losing themselves in the process.

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Courage is being loyal to oneself, despite the presence of danger. Courage is having the gull to act upon what one believes in, and not the opinion of a government, religion, family member, or opinion leader.

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Thursday, July 19, 2012

Cat's Eye

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Gordimer employs a paradoxical mingling of continuity and change in order to introduce the Smales unsettling immersion into a foreign class structure. The fact that July began that day for them as his kind has always done for their kind suggests a static continuity or repetition that belies the radical setting change between affluent governors residences, commercial hotel rooms, shift bosses company bungalows and the aperture in thick mud walls that now serves as the Smales front door. The setting change--an abrupt transition between the knock on the door and the non-sequitor that follows (no door)--not only foregrounds the correspondence between place and the formation of identity, but also introduces the inversion of power that characterizes the Smales new dependence upon July. In other words, whereas the master bedrooms of Johannesburg provide a setting in which the Smales exercise authority over July, their displacement to his village suddenly invests July with a degree of power over them (a dialectical Hegelian inversion, about which more below). And yet Julys broken English in the first line (You like to have some cup of tea?) underscores the language barriers that somewhat limit his recourse to power.Several objects are invested with symbolic power in Nadine Gordimers Julys People. Gordimer presents Bams gun and the yellow bakkie (and its keys) as objects that represent power in the text. At the beginning of the text the Smales family owns these objects, and as the narrative progresses their grasp on these objects of power becomes more tenuous, and July and other blacks assume ownership of the objects. The transfer of ownership, like the parallel transfer that occurs in Johannesburg, is uncomfortable for the whites involved. July, as well, experiences some discomfort as he takes power, in the form of the keys. The characters in the novel are continually forced to negotiate new ways of relating to one another, and Gordimer makes use of the awkward communication between the whites and blacks that result from a new power structure and the language barrier between them to illustrate the discomfort of that negotiation. Pages 57 - 6 deal with the issue of the bakkie keys in particular

The speech that Nelson Mandela made on February 11, 10 when he was released from prison.





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Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Oscar Belloso Medina

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OSCAR BELLOSO MEDINA

By Andrea Luengo

There are two concepts in the business world that have been reviewed every day by people who want to be successful management and leadership. Managing is nothing more than people, materials and funding, and making the relationship of these disparate items greater than the sum of the parts . On the other hand, leadership is the process of intentionally inspiring and persuading others to achieve enduring goals and fulfill the necessities of the group. A leader is a person who promote changes; someone who is good dealing with competencies such as vision, goal set, self control, perseverance, love, communication, investment and authority.

In Venezuela, Oscar Belloso Medina represents one of the most important entrepreneur leaders who has challenged the educational system to effect the establishment of the first bilingual university in this country.

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As a leader, Oscar Belloso started his dream in 165 at the Zulia University. He began working as a professor of Legal Medicine, and began to build his vision of institutions that could bring an educational system that fulfills the expectations of the market, but it was not until 167 when he started teaching Biology in colleges and high schools of the community when he paid attention to what was going on, which events would be important for the future, which would be the new approaches of the education in contrast with the environment that might frame this market. His fertile mind generated the idea to create institutions where

· People would receive an outstanding education and then bring profits to the society.

· The educational system would bring high technology to the community given the opportunity to participate in the worldwide market.

· Professors would develop programs and skills in the students that not only noteworthy satisfy the requirements of Venezuela but also have an impact in the international community.

He committed to this vision and started to set realistic goals to achieve his dreams. Oscar Belloso established his direction through an objective point of view, matching the necessities of the market and likes and dislikes of his customers, creating an institution where high school students could finish their education process in two and half years instead of five. This first institution was named “Universal Institute” with the free-scholar system. As a good leader , he established measurable goals, so by 18, he founded “Dr. Rafael Belloso Chacin College”, and “Dr. Rafael Belloso Chacin University” (URBE) in 18. In a conference, he said to the audience that there were many things that made his dreams come true discipline, perseverance and a set agenda. He said “I wrote and described my goals, and set an agenda with a positive point of view of the necessary items to achieve them…the most important fact is to incorporate behavior changes in the goals; it is only in this way that we can make the difference”. He understood that setting a goal program would allow people to make right decisions and evaluate goals; otherwise, the external environment would take charge of your decisions and your life.

Furthermore, Oscar Belloso has demonstrated his self control by walking around his organizations, saying “welcome” to students and employee; taking part in the solution of every day problems, and keeping firm his vision even throughout the misfortunate situations that Venezuela has faced. This attitude is a crucial characteristic of a leader, self control brings discipline, strength, freedom and confidence for the one who practice.

In spite of all obstacles and impossibilities Oscar Belloso has been perseverant. He challenged the community’s myth that public universities are better than the private ones. He has change the paradigm showing that it is possible to create excellent institutions. He dealt with unforeseeable events but in the end, he promoted the virtual university, the classroom for oral judge practices, the TV and radio station, the first bilingual university in the country and the figure of diplomado programs that are recognized by the Education Ministry of The Bolivarian Venezuelan Republic. He and his team have been perseverant and have never renounced their goal. Every day, they employed new strategies that can be used to obtain other objectives.

Another important factor that frame Oscar Belloso Chacin as a leader is his love. As Maryorin Carrizo wrote in her research work, true love is more than an emotional feeling; it is a “Willpower Act” that a leader works and develops for the good of others. Oscar Belloso frequently expresses his consideration and affection for the others. That is one of the strength of his leadership. He believed in the power of the people and because of it, took the threat of reeducate inmates at The National Jail of Maracaibo in 171. He understands that people work through rewards and love. He is a model to his followers teaching them how love, reward and teamwork help and benefit everyone.

In addition, good communication skills represent another essential factor that describe Oscar Belloso. A leader should have the capacity of influence and organize meaning for the members of the organization. Oscar Belloso is conscious about the power of communication in the development of the organizations to achieve long term development goals and success. He identifies himself with others’ experiences, listens to their likes and dislikes and promotes an environment of perpetual innovative learning; as a result, he empowers his team to attain the goals of his institutions with authority, responsibility and acknowledgement. He has manifested the importance of the communication by promoting the development of the URBE web page with links to communicate among the external environment and the institutions, the radio and TV station (URBE is the only university that have this type of communication in Zulia state), and finally with TELLOS magazine, which is the tribune for promotion, debate, discussion, and is acknowledged to offer answer to national problems. Researchers of URBE and any other private and public institutions can participate.

By the way, Oscar Belloso perceived and found the reason for his investment OUTSTANDING EDUCATION. His followers recognized that he is investment for the benefit of themselves. According to Thomas Peters and Robert Walerman in their book “In Search of Excellence Lessons from Americas Best-Run Companies” there are eight factors that contribute for the excellence in different kinds of entities and investment was one of them. Excellent companies invest in their customers; getting close to them to offer an outstanding service and giving the best profit for their money. As a result they gain loyalty from their customer, profitable benefits and so on. Oscar Belloso has invested in his organization offering to their customer better facilities such as health department, studies rooms, parking with electronic counters, opportunities to develop artistic talent that can be performed in an auditorium with a capacity for two hundred and fourteen people and labs for computer, physics and electronics. They are complementary unpaid services that help maximize the individual and collective effort of the community.

Finally, the manifestation of authority helped to Oscar Belloso gain the respect from his followers and community for his convictions about how to coach people to achieve the goals of the organization. He had drive, determination and concentration of the potential of his team. He strongly believed in his vision, ideas and how his leadership benefits stake holders.

In summary, Oscar Belloso represents a charismatic leader distinguished by his managerial results and the satisfaction of his team. He focuses on creating the conditions for achieving his goal, empowering others; and understanding their needs. Oscar Belloso is a leader because the degree to which competency is one of his integral characteristics, and the degree to which others are influenced by his individual behavior and his values . His vision inspires the community , as Simon Bolivar said, “A human being without education is an incomplete human being”, and because of this, every semester and year more and more people get integral education from his institutions and are looking forward not only to their own benefits, but also to those of the community.

REFERENCES

BOOKS

& Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (17). Leaders. Strategies for taking charge. New York HarperCollins Publishers.

& Carrizo, M. (001). Taller Liderizando bajo Principios de Excelencia. Maracaibo URBE.

& Downs, A. (18). Seven miracles of management. New Jersey Prentice Hall.

& Enebral, J. Lideres y seguidores. Venezuela Formación y Consultaría, S.A.

& Koontz, A., & Weihrich, H. (18). Administración Una perspectiva global. (E. Mercado, Trans.). M�xico D.. Mc Graw Hill.

& Peters, T. & Walerman, Robert. (). In Search of Excellence Lessons from Americas Best-Run Companies. New York Warner Books.

& Shermerhorn, J. (00). Management. (7th ed.). New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

8 Universidad Dr. Rafael Belloso Chacin. [Web page]. Available from http//www.urbe.edu. Accessed 00 Oct 0.

8 Pheps, B. (181-00). Principle of leadership. [Web article]. Available from http//psychology.about.com



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Sunday, July 15, 2012

EATING DISORDER

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Imagine how person’s life will be if he just have to think about what he/she has to eat? Eating disorder is continuing to increase in today’s society. People think that this problem occurs because of food but this conception of people is wrong it is due to low-self esteem. Eating disorder is “when a person eats, or refuses to eat, in order to satisfy a psychic need and not a physical need. The person doesnt listen to bodily signals or perhaps is not even aware of them. A normal person eats when hungry and stops eating when the body doesnt need more, when he feels the signal of satisfaction.”(Palme,G). People want to remain fit so that they can be socially accepted in society and does not have to face shame if they are not like other people. This thought of people puts them into a great danger. They forget about the nutrition’s they need to have in food. They just want to create their images in front of others. Media is the great influence of such act in society.

It is believed that minimum of 50000 of people will die from the problem of eating disorder.(learn various…)

There are four main types of eating disorder and having any of these disorder is not a positive signal it causes lot of health issues and one faces many consequences. The four main types are

• Anorexia can occur in any age and for any sex. The main reason behind anorexia is weight loss. There are many ways in which people try to reduce their weight and instead of reducing their weight they fall into a very terrible disease called anorexia.(Hickin,L)

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• Bulimia people suffering with this do not feel safe about their own self-importance. Bulimia is characterized by binge eating. Over here there is a lost of control in consuming the food.

(Hickin,L)

• Binge over here people consumes a lot of food in a very short time. They feel out of control following by guilt feelings.(Hickin,L)

• Compulsive eating can be understood by its name as it shows that people loose their control on food and have excess amount of it and resulting to gaining lots of weight.

(Thompson,C)

Any disease is caused due to some reason. People have eating disorder problem due to many causes some people face because they have family problems, or personal factor other reason could be social, they want to have figures which are acceptable in society and the major cause of having disorder is media which have an great impact on individual.

Media is one of the major causes of eating disorder; it is difficult for people to escape form the web of advertisement which advertiser built amongst people by providing information, advertisement and communication. Media is setting wrong body images in mind of people. They portray thin and beautiful body images as an ideal body for woman and man’s body image is considered to be perfect with athletic and muscular body. This shows how much an individual is influenced by media. They show on television program such as “Bay watch” very skinny and beautiful women in order to make people realize this is how they should look. Super models in all the popular magazines have continued to get thinner and thinner. Modeling agencies have been reported to actively pursue Anorexic models. The average woman model weighs up to 5% less than the typical woman and maintains a weight at about 15 to 0 percent below what is considered healthy for her age and height.(Karyn, Leah, Gina, Evelyn, & Melissa). Media makes people think that if they have certain weigh, wear certain clothes than only they will be accepted in society. Barbie dolls have also contributed a lot towards this there body images makes teens think of having same image. Teenager girls think that if they look attractive than they will have good looking boyfriends like Ken.(Karyn, Leah, Gina, Evelyn, & Melissa). Many Studies have shown that while 5 years ago the average model weighed 8% less than the average American woman, todays model weighs % below the national average.(Karyn, Leah, Gina, Evelyn, & Melissa) statistics above prove that what type of models are being used by media this encourages women to be like them even they weigh absolutely correct according to medical terms. This misconception of women by media leads to sever problems like eating disorder. Famous personalities who are or who had been suffering from eating disorders include Tracy Gold, Christina Ricci, Princess Diana, Magali Amadei. It has taken these personalities’ years to confess about their eating problems, yet people tend to be inspired and influenced by such celebrities.



Eating disorder is not a joke, once trapped in this disease then the person realizes the mistake that he/she have done. “Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s the fattest one of all”? (if you can…)This sentence has got different meaning for a normal person and a different meaning for an individual who has just got recovered from this awful disease of eating disorder. A normal individual sees the mirror and start comparing them with their favorite T.V stars. They feel terrible and start taking strict actions, which leads to eating disorder. Whereas, an individual who has been recovered from eating disorder he would say “Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s the fairest of all” and it will be you.(if u can…)

Palme, G (8/0/00). Definitions of eating disorders. Retrieved on 1/10/00

from http//web4health.info/en/answers/ed-dia-ed-def.htm

Learn the various…… Retrieved on 01/11/00 from

http//womensissues.about.com/library/eating/bledindex.htm

Hickin, L (08/07/00). The Physical effects of eating disorders. Retrieved on

6/10/00 from

http//www.ivillage.co.uk/health/hlive/eat/articles/0,,181168_18776,00.html

Thompson, C (0/1/00).Compulsive Overeating. Retrieved on 0/11/00

from http//www.mirror-mirror.org/compulsive.htm

Karyn, Leah, Gina, Evelyn, and Melissa. Retrieved on 5/10/00 from

http//www.something-fishy.org/cultural/themedia.php





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Character analysis of unnamed character in greasy lake by T. Coraghassan Boyle

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The Character of the Unnamed Narrator in “Greasy Lake”

by T. Coraghassan Boyle

Bad Characters or Bad Character Wanna-be’s? “Greasy Lake” is the story of the unnamed narrator and his two friends who are bad characters until they run into a situation where they question just how bad they are. Just because they act badly and look bad does not mean they are bad. They are teenagers in a period, “when courtesy and winning ways are out of style when it is good to be bad, when they cultivate decadence like a taste.” (paragraph 1) They look bad, wearing torn-up leather jackets, slouching around with toothpicks in their mouths and wearing their shades morning, noon, and night. They have the attitude. They drive their parents’ cars fast and burn rubber as they pull out of the driveway. They have the bad habits. They drink “gin and grape juice, Tango, Thunderbird, and Bali Hai, sniff glue, and ether and what somebody claims is cocaine.” (paragraph ) What starts out as a harmless prank turns into a situation where they get into a fight, attempt to rape a girl, find a dead body, and see first hand the destruction a bad character can do to an automobile. These events that transpire on the third night of summer vacation lead up to revelations by the narrator into the fact that he may think that he is a bad character, but in reality he is not. In reality, the narrator is only portraying an image he has of a character he wants to be.

The night the narrator and his friends lose their “badness” is nothing special. After the requisite bad character activities egging mailboxes and hitchhikers, driving up and down Main Street, eating, drinking, and smoking pot, they decide to go to the local hangout, Greasy Lake, to see if anything is going on. They cruise up to the lake with their “lemon-flavored gin,” requisite pot, and the itch for some action. There is no better place for these three bad characters to hang out. Greasy Lake is an important place for bad characters to learn an important lesson. The lake, like the events about to unfold, is “fetid and murky…mud banks glistened with broken glass, strewn with beer cans and the charred remains of bonfires.” (paragraph ) There are only two vehicles in the whole parking lot, “the exoskeleton of some gaunt chrome insect, a chopper leaned against its kickstand.” (paragraph 5) And a, “57 Chevy, mint, metallic blue.” (paragraph 5) No excitement, “expect some junkie halfwit biker and a car freak pumping his girlfriend.” Whatever they are looking for they are not going to find it up at the lake. All of a sudden, they see a friend’s car. This is all the three need to know; now things will get interesting, maybe it is not a wasted trip after all. They flash the headlights and honk the horn, a harmless prank to pull on a friend, “for all we know we might even catch a glimpse of some little fox’s tit. And then we could slap backs with red-faced Tony, roughhouse a little, and go on to new heights of adventure and daring.” (paragraph 6)

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What seemed a good prank turns out to be the biggest mistake the narrator could have made. The first mistake is dropping the car keys in the grass. That is a mistake because now the narrator has no way to escape the area and situation. Also, in their haste for a little excitement and adventure, they fail to realize it is not Tony’s car after all, but someone else’s car. This is the second mistake. The owner of the car, a greasy booted character, does not find this childish prank funny. He comes out of the car with fists flying and feet kicking. He is not about to let these guys get away with this so-called harmless prank. This guy is bad; he takes on all three of the friends, and thoroughly beats them up. Even after this, the narrator still thinks he is bad. “I went for the tire iron under the car seat.” (paragraph 11) The narrator still holds onto the idea he is bad, “I [keep] it there because bad characters always keep tire irons under the driver’s seat, for just such an occasion as this.” (paragraph 11) Everything the narrator is thinking about is associated with the image of being bad. The reality is this guy has used the tire iron, not for other fights, but to change a flat tire. As for fighting, this bad character has been in only one other fight in his life “in the 6th grade, when a kid with a sleepy eye and two streams of mucous descending from his nostrils hit me in the knee with a Louisville slugger.” (paragraph 11)

The situation is taking on a life of its own, a situation the narrator cannot stop. “The antagonist is shirtless… he bends forward to peel Jeff from his back like a wet overcoat…Motherfuer, he spats over and over, and the narrator is aware in that instant that all four of them � Digby, Jeff and the narrator included � are chanting motherfuer, motherfuer as if it were a battle cry.” (paragraph 1) The adrenaline is pumping, hearts racing; the smell of fear is in the air. They are actors in a play watching from the stage; they are bad. In the heat of the moment; “I go at him like a kamikaze, mindless, raging, stung with humiliation � the whole thing, from the initial boot in the shin to this murderous primal instinct.” (paragraph 1) Logic is gone; the only thing that matters is survival, survival of the baddest. The narrator hits the greasy character on the side of his head and the greasy character goes down, a tuff of hair hanging on the edge of the tire iron. They “are standing over him in a circle, gritting their teeth, jerking their necks, their limbs and hands and feet twitching.” (paragraph 14) They are bad they have knocked out the greasy character. All of a sudden, they hear a shriek; it is the greasy characters girlfriend. She is standing there, and they are feeling tough. The adrenaline and testosterone is flowing. They turn their attention to her. “We are bad characters, and we are wheezing, tearing at her clothes, grabbing for flesh. We are bad characters and we are scared and hot.”(paragraph 15) They are on her …like Bergman’s deranged brothers � see no evil � hear none, speak none.”(paragraph 15) These guys are not rapists. They are three 1 year olds, who due to a case of mistaken identity, are heading for the edge. “[…] we are steps over the line and anything can happen.” (paragraph 15) They never get a chance to go over the edge; a pair of headlights interrupts them. They bolt, running for the car and realizing the keys are lost; they make their way to the woods. They scatter; they are not bad anymore they are scared.

Being a truly bad character has its ramifications and the three are about to find out what the ramifications are. The narrator flees into the murky water running through weeds and muck. Just when he thinks it could not get any worse, he stumbles upon the lifeless body of a dead man. It is then, standing next to a dead body the narrator starts to realize he and his friends are not as bad as they think. He is just a scared little boy. “I’m 1, a mere child, an infant and here in the space of five minutes I’d struck down one greasy character,” (paragraph 1) not to mention the attempted rape of the greasy characters’ girlfriend, “and blundered in to the water logged carcass of another.” (paragraph 1) The narrator is alone. He has no idea where his other two bad friends have gone. He is alone in the dark; his only companion is the dead biker. The narrator knows he is in trouble; the car, which has interrupted the rape, is still there, which means the occupants of the car are looking for the narrator and his two bad friends. He also knows no matter what, if they catch him, they are going to beat him up. Suddenly, he hears the sound of metal against metal; the bad, greasy character is smashing his mom’s car with the tire iron, the weapon of choice for all bad characters. The narrator feels joy and vindication; he is not a murder, “the son of a bitch is alive”. (paragraph 6) First, the headlight, then the bumper, then he hears the windshield break. The two bad characters that driven up in the Trans Am are picking up rocks, muck, garbage, and pop-tops, used condoms and throwing it all through the broken windshield. It becomes increasingly apparent these are truly bad characters. Lying in the water next to the dead biker, the narrator feels as bad as his surroundings. “The bad breath of decay is all around me, my jacket, heavy as a bear, the primordial ooze subtly reconstituting itself to accommodate my upper thighs and testicles. My jaws ache, my knee throbs, my coccyx is on fire.” (paragraph 1) The narrator not only feels the physical side effects of his wild night of badness, but he feels it emotionally as well. The weight of what he and his friends have done rests heavily on him like his coat. The “breath of decay” (paragraph 1) is his feelings of death, the death of an image, and the death of ideals, of who he thinks he is. The “primordial ooze” (paragraph 1) is the feelings of regret and ugliness of what the narrator and his friends have done.

As the narrator is lying in the muck he begins to think about other repercussions as well. The narrator has to figure out what he is going to tell his parents about the car. “A tree fell on the car, I was blinded by a bread truck, hit and run, vandals got to it while we were playing chess at Digby’s.” (paragraph 1) If he is truly bad, he would not care his Mother’s car is damaged, and no car arriving would have stopped the rape. The dead body would not bother him. He would not fear getting out of the water and being beaten up. He would not need to question whether he is bad or not. As he is sitting there, something about the nature of life is revealed to him. He realizes that life has a dark side, and there are limitations to being bad.

When the narrator and his friends finally come out of the woods, they go over the to the car and cannot believe what they see. The narrator feels as the car looks, all battered and smashed, broken, destroyed, a wreck. They go to the car and start cleaning it out. This is symbolic of what they need to do with their own lives. They need to clean up their images, they need to pick up the pieces and start over. They have to evaluate themselves. They are ashamed because they realize they have run across people who do not have to act badly because they are bad. As they are about to leave, a Mustang drives up, and one of its occupants gets out looking for the biker. When she sees the three friends, she says, “Hey, you guys look like some pretty bad characters � been fighting, huh?” (paragraph 4) They do not know how to answer her. Yes, they have been fighting, but they are not bad. Her perception of them is based on the way they look, how the car looks. She is judging them by what she sees, not who they truly are. Then the narrator thinks, “I am going to cry.” (paragraph 44) This is because he realizes that they may look and act like bad characters, but they are not. Looks are deceiving. He and his friends learn the valuable lesson that there will always be a character “badder” then they are. They also realize then that anyone of them could be the guy floating in the lake. The narrator and his two friends learn valuable lessons from the experience they have gone through never judge a book by its cover; never underestimate their opponents; and most importantly, there truly is a difference between a bad character and a bad character wanna-be.



Please note that this sample paper on Character analysis of unnamed character in greasy lake by T. Coraghassan Boyle is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Character analysis of unnamed character in greasy lake by T. Coraghassan Boyle, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Character analysis of unnamed character in greasy lake by T. Coraghassan Boyle will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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