Wednesday, April 24, 2013

I don't write papers

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king was a violent episode. Archaeology has also revealed Publius Valerius as a historical character at about the right date, `the companions of Poplios Valesios made a dedication to Mars at Satricum, a Latin town some forty miles south of Rome.(7) But that local warlord seems to have little in common with the democratic constitutionalist of the Roman story.

The trouble with archaeological discoveries is that they encourage the Schliemann fallacy find the site of Troy, and youve proved the Iliad is true. Even the best modern historians sometimes succumb to this temptation.

The study of early Rome has been put on a wholly new footing by Tim Cornells brilliant synthesis The Beginnings of Rome (15). Cornell has no illusions about the tradition on the birth of the Republic `it has the appearance of a historical romance, and forms a self-contained saga of connected stories! But, he goes on, `there is no reason in principle why the tradition should not be a romanticised version of events that really happened. It is arbitrary to dismiss the rape of Lucretia (for instance) as fiction, when we have no way of knowing whether it is fiction or not.(8) That is, it purports to be true; it could be true; why should it not be true?

Further, `we might be tempted to argue that the overthrow of Tarquin was followed by a confused period of turmoil in which various members of his family and other leading figures struggled for power, replacing each other in rapid succession ... -- and the note makes it explicit that `they would include his relatives Brutus and Collatinus, but perhaps also Valerius Poblicola [`The Peoples Friend], who held the consulship three years in succession, and in the traditional story was suspected of aiming at kingship.() So perhaps there really were five `consuls in Year One.

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How do we know Valerius held the consulship three years running? Cornell takes it as a fact because he believes that `the practice of recording the names of the men who held the chief magistracy must go back to the very early years of the Republic, and it is certain that continuous lists were kept in written form.(10) If that were so, then documentary evidence would guarantee the five names as authentic. But it is, to put it mildly, an adventurous hypothesis.(11) Its also inconsistent with Cornells own suggested model for Year One why should the victor in that putative power snuggle carefully record his rivals names as equal to his own?

So forget any idea of archival evidence. What we have is the tradition, and what matters is how we handle it. `In each case, says Cornell, `one must ask, first, whether there are grounds for regarding a story as ancient, or as a relatively late invention; and second, whether there are reasons for thinking that it might be based on fact. Well, and good, as far as it goes. But then `The burden of proof lies as heavily on those who wish to deny as on those who wish to affirm.(1) And that, with the greatest respect, just will not do.

The burden of proof is on whoever challenges the prima facie presumption. And what is the prima facie presumption here? Not, I think., that authors writing five hundred years later, in a tradition of written history no more than two hundred years old, are likely to have reported the events accurately, or even recognisably. In such circumstances, to treat `Why shouldnt it be true? as a no less valid question than `Why should it? comes pretty dose to abdicating the historians responsibility.(1)

Better, in any case, to ask a different type of question. What sort of stories are they, and how may they have come about?

NOTES

(1.) A fragment of a bucchero bowl from the Regia, illustrated in Cambridge Ancient History VII.. (ed. , Cambridge, 18), 76, fig. 5; and the `Lapis Niger stele at the Volcanal (CIL [I.sup.] 1 = ILLRP ).

(.) L. Cincius, quoted in Livy 7..5-7.

(.) See Ovid, Fasti .685, 851; Festus (Paulin) 47L; Plutarch, Quaestiones Romanae 6 Moralia 7D); Ausonius 7.4.1; Polemius Silvius in CIL [I.sup.] p. 5 = Inscr. Ital. XIII. p. 65.

(4.) The main narrative sources for the first year of the Republic are Livy .1.7-., Dionysius of Halicarnassus 5.1.-1.5, and Plutarch, Publicola 1.4-14.5. Up-to-date modern discussion in T. J. Cornell The Beginnings of Rome Italy and Rome from du Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000-64 B.C.) (London, 15), ch. `The Beginnings of the Roman Republic; cf. also A. Drummond in CAH VII. (n. 1 above), 17-0. For a fascinating exploration of all the aspects of the Brutus legend, assuming (wrongly, in my view) its essential historicity, see A. Mastrocinque, Lucio Giunio Bruto ricerche di storia, religione e diritto sulk origini della repubblica romana (Trento, 188).

(5.) ILLRP 0; R. Wachter, Altleteinischer Inschriften sprachliche und epigraphische Untersuchungen zu den Documenten bis etwa 150 v. Chr. (Bern, 187). 01-4.

(6.) Augustine, City of God .16 (Penguin translation).

(7.) Illustrated in CAH VII. (n. 1 above), 7, fig. ; see C. M. Stibbe et al., Lapis Satricanus Archaeological, Epigraphical, Linguistic and Historical Aspects of the New Inscription from Satrucum (The Hague, 180).

(8.) Op. cit. (n. 4 above), 17.

(.) Ibid. 17-18, 4.

(10.) Ibid. 1 (my emphasis).

(11.) See Journal of Roman Archaeololy (16), 1-15 for arguments against. Stephen Oakley, in the introduction to his magnificent new commentary on Livy 6-10 (Oxford. 17), defends a position close to Cornells `it is very hard to see whence Pictor and later annalists drew the basic framework of their narrative, if there were no state records which were in some sense official (4); the Romans belief that the annales maximi went back to the beginning of the Republic `does not amount to proof that the chronicle was already in existence in the fifth century or before, but it would be surprising in a partly hellenized and partly literate society if the state did not keep records of some kind (5). I think that begs a big question about the nature of `the state; and Oakleys general treatment of archival evidence seems to me more relevant to the fourth century (the period covered by Books 6-10) than the fifth or late sixth.

(1.) Op. cit. (n. 4 above), 11.

(1.) Cf. Oakley, op. cit., 10 `accepting annalistic information unless it is proved to be wrong [is] an absurd procedure given the inadequacies of our sources.

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

J. A. RICHMOND Emeritus Professor of Greek, University College Dublin.

T. P. WISEMAN Professor of Classics and Ancient History, University of Exeter.

RHIANNON ASH Lecturer in Classics, University College London.

TOM STEVENSON Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

DAVID WOODS Temporary Lecturer, Department of Ancient Classics, St Patricks College, Maynooth, Ireland.











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SHakespeare translations

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TRADUCTORES, TRAIDORES Y ESTAFADORES

¿A qui�n traiciona el traductor? ¿A quien escribió la obra que está traduciendo, o a quien lee esa obra una vez consumado el hecho? Probablemente la traición sea doble, pero la existencia de ese traductor es un mal necesario e inevitable. Aprender ruso para leer a Dostoviesky o a Tolstoi, Japon�s para leer a Akutagawa o a O�, Ingl�s para conocer a Poe, Shakespeare, y la lista podría seguir, es virtualmente imposible. Puede ser que la traducción que más circula de En Busca del Tiempo Perdido no sea la mejor, pero la obra perdura y se sobrepone a la traducción. Puede ser que Borges se haya tomado ciertas libertades al traducir a Faulkner, pero Faulkner sigue siendo Faulkner, y la fuerza y genialidad de su obra se percibe más allá de que en algún cuento haya algún final cambiado. ¿Cuál sería el problema, entonces, si se puede aceptar esa doble traición del traductor? El problema surge cuando quien lee la traducción conoce (Y entiende) el texto original. El problema se agudiza cuando quien entiende algo del idioma original, está ante una edición bilingüe. El problema empeora cuando el libro que se tiene en las manos es de poesía.

Antes de graficar con ejemplos lo que estoy sosteniendo, creo necesario dejar en claro una postura personal La importancia de las palabras no decae si estamos ante una narración, y el principio de literalidad debe cumplirse (Dentro de las limitaciones que cada idioma otorga) de la manera más fiel posible. Pero estimo que ante un poema ese principio de traducir lo más fielmente posible debe ser algo así como un Mandamiento. Quien traduce un poema está ante una dificultad insalvable que es la que, paradójicamente, da más libertad al traductor La m�trica y la rima. Traducir cualquier poema o soneto con la misma m�trica y la misma rima, y ser literal, resulta imposible. Lo mismo ocurriría si solamente nos preocupara la m�trica. Esa imposibilidad otorga, entonces, la mayor de las libertades Traducir en la forma más literal posible, sin pensar en m�trica y rima, casi como si fuera un relato o una novela. Sin embargo, contrariamente a lo que aquí sostengo, parecería ser que quienes traducen versos se sienten más inclinados a sacrificar cierta textualidad a favor de que los versos rimen, o tengan la misma m�trica. Ejemplos de lo que digo serán expuestos en este artículo. Eso es aún más forzado y violento que el acto de traducir.

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Volviendo a la pregunta original de este texto, ¿A qui�n traiciona el traductor?, encontramos una respuesta casi inmediata y que ya ha sido dada al autor de la obra y al lector. Además de los problemas que puede encontrar quien conoce la obra en su idioma original, existe otro problema aún peor Cuando además de un Traidor, estamos ante un Estafador.

A continuación voy a graficar con ejemplos lo que quiero exponer. La obra elegida es el soneto número XVIII de Shakespeare, y dado que voy a citar tres autores con sus nombres y apellidos, creo justo y hasta �tico presentar mi propia traducción de dicho soneto. No quiero imponer mi traducción como ejemplo, si bien la realic� siguiendo mis propias convicciones en el campo de la traducción.

El soneto de Shakespeare, en ingl�s

Shall I compare thee to a summers day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summers lease hath all too short a date

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimmd;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance or natures changing course untrimmd;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade

Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;

Nor shall Death brag thou wanderst in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou growest

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this and this gives life to thee.

Traducción de Agustín García Calvo (Español), editorial Anagrama, “Sonetos de Amor”

A un día de verano habr� de compararte?

Tú eres más dulce y temperado un ramalazo

De viento los capullos de Mayo desparte,

Y el pr�stamo de estío vence a corto plazo;

Tal vez de sobra el ojo de los cielos arde,

Tal vez su tez de oro borrones empañan,

Y toda gracia gracia pierde pronto o tarde,

Que ya accidente o cambio natural la dañan.

Más tu verano eterno ni jamás se agota

O pierde prenda de esa gracia en que floreas,

Ni Muerte ha de ufanarse que a su negra costa

Vagues, que cara al tiempo en línea eterna creces.

En tanto aliente un hombre o ver el ojo pida,

Vivo estará este verso, y te dará a ti vida.

Traducción de Alfredo Gómez Gil. (Español), Biblioteca EDAF, “ Los sonetos de Shakespeare

Debería compararte a un día de verano?

Eres lo más hermoso y apacible.

Rudos vientos de mayo sacuden los capullos,

Y el plazo del verano arriendo pronto vencerá.

De vez en cuando el ojo del cielo resplandece

Y a menudo su dorada consplexión se desvanece;

Y en ocasiones pierde su belleza,

Por accidente o por cambio del curso de la naturaleza.

Más nada apagará tu eterna primavera,

Ni perderás la posesión de la belleza que adeudas,

Ni la muerte se jactará de que por su sombra erres,

Cuando crezcas y perdures en inmortales versos.



Mientras los humanos respiren o los ojos vean,

Mis vivos versos continuarán tu vida.

Traducción de Miguel Montezanti (Argentina), Longseller, “ Sonetos Completos”

Si a un día de verano te comparo

Tú eres más templado y placentero

Deja el viento al capullo sin amparo

Y el plazo del verano es pasajero;

El sol del cielo alguna vez calcina

Y otras veces opácase su oro,

Toda belleza alguna vez declina

O natura o azar causan desdoro.

Más tu eterno verano no ha de ajarse

Ni perderás dominio en tu hermosura;

De sombras no podrá muerte jactarse

Cuando en líneas te guarde edad futura.

Mientras que el ojo vea, y hombre aliente

Esto pervivirá y te hará viviente.

Traducción de Juan Jos� Burzi.

Te comparar� a un día de verano?

Tú eres más bella y templada

Rudos vientos sacuden los adorables capullos de Mayo,

Y el arriendo del verano vence a corto plazo

A veces demasiado candente el ojo del cielo brilla,

Y a menudo es su dorada tez opacada;

Y toda belleza alguna vez decae,

Por casualidad o por el curso desordenado y cambiante de la naturaleza;

Pero tu eterno verano no se marchitará

Ni perderá posesión de esa belleza que adeudas;

Ni la Muerte presumirá de que por su sombra erres,

Cuando en eternas líneas tu crezcas

En tanto los hombres puedan respirar o los ojos ver,

Esto vivirá y te dará vida.

En la primer línea encontramos tres versiones muy diferentes, dos de ellas muy erradas

“ Si a un día de verano te comparo” escribe Montezanti, agregándole un condicional inexistente en la obra original. Omite, por otro lado, el tiempo futuro y, además, parece no ver el signo de pregunta en la primer línea.

“¿Debería compararte a un día de verano?” Gil traduce una pregunta en futuro (el auxiliar Shall lo indica) en un “ debería” (Should en ingl�s). Tal vez el sentido de la oración no cambie tanto, pero tampoco parece acertado sacrificar la literalidad de la pregunta por lo que parece ser un capricho del traductor.

“ ¿A un día de verano habr� de compararte?” escribe Calvo, cambiando tambi�n el modo en Futuro Simple en que está escrita la pregunta de Shakespeare.

La segunda línea tambi�n presenta diferencias

“ tú eres más templado y placentero” En esta línea, el traductor debe decidir, teniendo en cuenta que en todo el soneto no hay una sola referencia, el g�nero de la persona a la cual está dirigido el mismo. Shakespeare era un hombre, y si bien hay versiones de que era homosexual y/o de que muchos de sus sonetos estaban dedicados a un hombre, no creo que la mejor traducción sea un “ templado” en vez de “templada”. No es ser pacato, simplemente usar el sentido común. De todos modos, es válida la traducción de Montezanti. Otra vez es el traductor quien decide.

Gil, por su parte, se toma la libertad de cambiar, una vez más, las palabras de Shakespeare. “Eres lo más hermoso y apacible.” Escribe, cuando es claro que Shakespeare traza una comparación entre un día de Verano y la persona a la que está dirigido el soneto.

“ Tu eres más dulce y temperado un ramalazo” Calvo elige, al igual que Montezanti, un “tú” masculino. Por otro lado, escribe en la segunda línea una parte de la tercera, supongo que para que luego rime “ramalazo” con “plazo” , lo cual no sería tan grave, a no ser que “ ramalazo” (“gust” en ingl�s), no está escrito en el soneto. Lo veremos en la tercer línea.

“deja el viento al capullo sin amparo” escribe Montezanti, pero Shakespeare no habla ni de “ amparo”(shelter, assistance, protection, aid) ni de “capullo” (Bud en singular, Buds en plural, tal como está en el soneto). Tambi�n olvida escribir que los vientos (winds) son “ rudos” (Rough). Parece que la forma en que adjetivaba Shakespeare no le convencía.

“Rudos vientos de Mayo sacuden los capullos” traduce Gil, y parecería, a simple vista, muy bien traducido, pero hay un error de Mayo son los capullos (buds of May), no el “ rudo viento”. Se puede deducir que si el viento está sacudiendo los capullos que son Mayo, el viento tambi�n es de Mayo, pero Shakespeare no escribió eso.

“ de viento los capullos de Mayo desparte” escribe Calvo, olvidando tambi�n que los vientos eran “ rudos” , y prefiriendo escribir “desparte” en vez de “ sacude” (do shake).

Una acotación que vale en las tres traducciones, Shakespeare escribió “ darling buds of May”, ninguno de los tres tradujo el “darling”. Al parece a ninguno de nosotros, lectores de lengua española, nos debe interesar saber que los capullos además de ser de Mayo eran “queridos” , o “ amados” , o “ adorables” o como quiera traducírseles.

“ y el plazo del verano es pasajero” (Montezanti), “ Y el plazo del verano arriendo pronto vencerá” (Gil), “y el pr�stamo del estío vence a corto plazo” (Calvo) son traducciones que pueden ser aceptadas como literales o no, dado que la expresión que utiliza Shakespeare (Hath all too short a date) traducida literalmente perdería el sentido que sí es rescatado en las tres versiones ya dadas.

Terminamos así con la primer estrofa del soneto, y podría seguir así hasta el final, pero no es mi intención escribir un tratado sobre traducción ni parecer tener algo personal contra los tres ilustres traductores que estoy citando como ejemplos de lo que no se debe hacer. Har�, si, algunas acotaciones más que por groseras no puedo dejar pasar por alto, y luego expondr� mi breve conclusión.

En la línea trece Monzanti traduce “ que el ojo vea, y el hombre aliente”, omitiendo el modal verb “ can” (poder) que utiliza Shakespeare. “que los ojos puedan ver o los hombres respirar” , sería la traducción, respetando el orden de las palabras que Montizanti elige. Como se notará, tambi�n omitió el plural (“eyes” ojos, “men” hombres).

En la línea once traduce “ de sombras no podrá muerte jactarse”, y no traduce “thou wander�st” (“ tu erres”, o “ tu vagues”)

Gil parece no querer dejar algunas cosas libradas al azar. Shakespeare solía referirse a sus propios sonetos. Para nombrarlos, al menos en el soneto XVIII, utiliza el pronombre demostrativo “this”- “esto” - (So long lives THIS and THIS gives life to thee). Gil no quiere entender de sutilezas ni ambigüedades, y reemplaza el pronombre demostrativo por su referente. Donde debería traducir “esto”, traduce “ versos” (Aún en eso está errado, porque si el referente tendría que ser versos, Shakespeare hubiera utilizado “ these” en vez de “ this”, es decir, que en todo caso Gil tendría que haber traducido “ verso” o, más correctamente, “soneto” )

Calvo tampoco quiere saber de sutilezas ni de ambigüedades, aclara, al igual que Gil, el significado de “ this”, pero al menos lo hace en singular. Una línea antes, línea trece, comete el mismo error que Monzanti, con algunas variantes.

En la línea ocho los tres omitieron traducir la palabra “ untrimm�d” (Desordenado).

Dejo a quien sepa Ingl�s el resto, así como tambi�n mi propia versión del soneto. Algo a favor de los traductores Hay quien entiende que mantener la rima o la m�trica es parte de la traducción, idea con la cual disiento. Hay quienes prefieren una traducción “ po�tica” a una más “ literal”, y tal vez tendríamos que detenernos a discutir largo y tendido el tema, pero no es mi intención hacerlo. No soy tan necio como para negar que el vuelo po�tico de cualquiera de las tres traducciones citadas por mí es muy alto, como no podría ser de otra manera siendo un soneto de Shakespeare la base o el leiv motiv que los impulsó a escribirlos. Por que estimo que ninguno de los tres sonetos, tal como están traducidos, podría decirse que le pertenece a Shakespeare. Hay vientos rudos que fueron olvidados, ojos y hombres reducidos a un ojo y a un hombre, capullos de Mayo olvidados y muchas omisiones groseras que me hacen temer, al releer alguna de estas traducciones, el estar ante un Estafador. Por que el traductor debe actuar como un puente entre la obra en su idioma original y la obra en el idioma en que es traducida, debe ser un vaso comunicante de una obra ajena, que si bien hace suya por un tiempo, el que dura la traducción, debe devolverla al otro idioma de la forma más fiel y acertada posible.

Se puede ser un buen traductor o un mal traductor, se puede ser un traidor extremo o un amable traidor, pero no un Estafador. Un Estafador es quien reescribe una obra que no es suya, y por lo general la empeora. Un estafador convierte a todos lo que leen la obra traducida en Estafados, felices, inocentes, avispados, pero estafados al fin.

Los traductores deberían tener presente que no todos son Baudelaire o Borges, y que la omisión o el cambio que en ellos fue motivo de elogio, en la mayoría de los mortales es motivo de sospecha. ¿Traidores, Estafadores, o simplemente Ineptos? Quien lea que decida.



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Sunday, April 21, 2013

In `To Kill A Mockingbird’ What View Does Harper Lee Give Us Of The Lives And Difficulties Of The Black Community In Maycomb, And What Hope If Any, Does She Give For The Future?

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The novel `To Kill A Mockingbird‘, written by Harper Lee, is set in the mid-10’s in Maycomb, a small, isolated, inward looking town in Alabama, USA. The book is mostly dominated by racial prejudice against Negroes. This prejudice, which the southern states conformed, resulted in an American Civil War. The South’s economy prospered through selling good like sugar, cotton and tobacco, which were produced by black slaves. The Southern states believed that black were inferior to white. The Northern states, however, did not want this slavery and prejudice to continue. The Northern states won the war and the Southern states had to abolish slavery.

In `To Kill A Mockingbird’ was set 70 years after the Civil War and we can see that the Southern states did not change their attitudes and held onto old values and traditions. The Southern resisted the idea that black people could share social and political equality and continued to support white authority.

In Maycomb there is no equality between the black and white communities. The town’s people are so racially prejudice that they have narrow, intolerant, rigid codes of behaviour that they choose to impose on each other. The Negroes live very different and difficult lives. They are regarded as inadequate, just because of the colour of their skin rather that who they are as people. This bigotry is made even more minacious by being depicted as `normal’ behaviour by the citizens. The town’s people do not realise their own hypocrisy because prejudice is so entrenched in their every day life.

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The black community is segregated from the white society. They are recognised as having their own land and church. The citizens consider Dolphus Raymond as an oddity, because he chooses to live amongst the Negroes, when he is white.

The Negroes are very religious, God fearing, law abiding, good natured, dignified people. After the Civil War the black community were earning money for their work and the all saved up all their money and built themselves a church, to worship and praise their God. A proportion of the white citizens takes advantage of the church and gamble in it when it is not in use for worship. They have no respect for the Negroes or God by gambling in their church. Although the Negroes are treated very badly they never consider rebelling. The only individual from the community who inflicted prejudice against the whites was Lula. When Calpurnia took Jem and Scout to the black church, the men steeped back and took off their hats; the women crossed their arms and made respectful gestures.

The Negroes are not educated. The whites believe that the Negroes do not deserve to be educated. They do not want black children associating with their children because the Negroes are thought to be a bad influence. Out of the whole church only four of the parish are able to read and write. It is ironic that Bob Ewell and family have the opportunity to be educated but do not use it and the Negroes would do anything for the opportunity to be educated.

Without education the Negroes cannot get decent, well paid jobs because they do not have the qualifications compared with the white society. So the whites have priority over the jobs. The type of jobs that the Negroes are offered are the low paid, maybe dangerous jobs which the white community does not wish to undertake. These jobs are domestic servants like Calpurnia, Jesse and Sophie, garbage collectors like Zeebo or cotton pickers like Tom Robinson was when he was younger, until he tore his left arm muscles during the job and is now unable to use his arm. These jobs are all actually considered very respectable for a Negro. By doing these jobs the Negroes are paid a very small amount of money. This is presumably why they live where they do and obey the white citizen’s because they do not have the money or power to stand up and do something about the way they are being treated.

The court of law is also swayed and conditioned by prejudice. In the court house the Negroes are, once again, segregated from the whites for the Negroes sat upstairs and the whites sat downstairs. The jury would submit no equality during a trail against a Negro because it consists of prejudice Maycomb town people. The trail of Tom Robinson reveals the depth of prejudice in Maycomb and believes that the black society is essentially inferior. Tom Robinson is clearly innocent of the crime of raping Mayella Ewell. It is also suspected that his accusers are lying but by Tom’s own admission, is guilty of daring to feel `sorry’ for a white girl. The white citizens cannot accept such a presumption and therefore produce an unjust decision and verdict. `When it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s, the white man always wins.’

There is a considerable amount of hypocrisy and prejudice occurring in Maycomb and is seems too idealistic for the racial problems to be solved, but there is still some hope for the future. Citizens such as Boo Radley, Heck Tate, Dolphus Raymond and to some extent Miss Maudie Atkinson do not conform and are against racial prejudice, although they are prosecuted for their decisions. Judge Taylors also unprejudiced and honourable to see that Tom Robinson has a fair trail by appointing Atticus, a very well experienced lawyer, to defend him rather than usually a black man would have a bad, inexperienced lawyer defending him. During the novel Mr Cunningham, a member of the lynch mob, realises to think about others views and that Tom Robinson is a human being to. The children Jem and Scout are not prejudice, therefore they will pass the sense of equality down to their future generations. The children learnt this mainly from their honourable father Atticus, but also from the trail. Atticus is a very unprejudiced man, he was willing to defend tom, even though he knew it would be very difficult for him but he knew he had to do it because it was the correct thing to do. This teaches the children that you must always do what’s right no matter what, and that everyone is equal and deserves to be treated equal



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Wednesday, April 10, 2013

grecian urn

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Analytical Essay

In the poem “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats, the speaker struggles with the trials and tribulations of life compared to immortality. He then speaks to the Grecian Urn in attempt to engage with the static immobility of the sculpture. He questions the urn, but gets no response from it. The speaker ultimately has to decide the answers to his own questions, leaving the poem with a higher level of understanding about life.

This was a poem from the Romantic Period and that made it easier to take a more “imaginative” standpoint, because during this period the authors focused on feelings, the imagination, and the value of what is supposed to be done to what can be done. It is important to look at the feelings of this particular poem, and it deals with the mysterious works of life in general, and reality versus a so-called “dream world.” The author creates this dream world through the speaker’s own imagination. The theme of this poem portrays Keats’s attempt to connect with the stand still time of sculpture, the Grecian urn. It has been passed down through countless centuries to the time of the speaker’s viewing, and this urn exists outside of time in the human sense�it does not age, or die, and it can grasp no such concepts. During the speaker’s meditation, this creates an

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intriguing paradox for the human figures carved into the side of the urn. They are free from time, but are simultaneously frozen in time. This is illustrated by the lines “Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave Thy song, nor ever can the trees be bare” (v. 15 &16). The people on the urn do not have to confront aging and death, but they cannot experience anything because they are frozen. Even though they will always have their youth, the lover’s will never know a different song, or know what winter feels like, or even how it would feel to grow old.

In the poem, the speaker tries to engage with the scenes on the urn at three different occasions. Each time he asks different questions to the urn, hoping that different approaches will somehow better answer his questions. In the first stanza, he examines the picture of the “mad pursuit” (Keats v. ) and wonders what story there is behind it, asking the questions “What men or gods are these? What maidens loath? What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?” (v. 8 & 10). Of course, the urn cannot tell him the who’s, what’s, where’s, and when’s of the stories it depicts, so after an endless number of unanswered questions, the speaker decides to analyze the pictures himself and abandon this kind of questioning. He uses his imagination to illuminate his mind of what the scenes actually depict. Through the speaker’s imagination and description of the scenes, the reader is also involved, making a triangle of imagination between the speaker, the urn, and the reader.

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In the first stanza, he sees the two lovers trying to catch each other, but cannot because they are frozen. He realizes that even though they will never actually touch, they will also never grow old. He explains this by saying, “Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss…She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair!” (v. 17, 1-0). The passion and love they have for one another will always remain, but the two young lovers will never know what it is like to touch each other’s lips or give into their passion. They will forever “want” and be “forever panting” (v. 7). The speaker sees both sides of the coin, he becomes aware of the negative side of their immortality, but he also realizes the soft pipes will play on, never to be forgotten. This makes the speaker question his own achievements and success in life. He does not want to leave the world a failure, having never felt like he lived, loved, or did something to be remembered by. In other words, he wants the soft pipes of “his” song to play on even after he is gone.

In another scene, the speaker sees how lonely and deserted the town will always be because everyone is frozen outside. This is significant because those people will never be able to experience anything else in life, they are permanently “frozen” at the “green altar” (v. ). The poem says,

And, little town, thy streets forevermore

Will silent be; and not a soul to tell

why thou art so desolate, can e’er return (v. 8-40).

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The townspeople will not be able to ever return to their homes, never knowing what it is like to understand the meaning of “home sweet home.”

The speaker leaves the poem questioning the pros and cons of his own mortality. He sees the good side of being frozen in time, but he does not envy those people. He says,

Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought

As doth eternity Cold Pastoral!

When old age shall this generation waste,

Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe (v. 44-47)

He feels that living life to the fullest is more attractive than immortality. Even though the urn teases the speaker with his immortality, the speaker knows the urn never experience anything, it will remain in the midst of the other woe time presents. The speaker knows he will never escape all of the negative aspects of life, but he is willing to take that chance. To experience life overall might be the best gift, which makes being mortal worth it.

To conclude, each of the two parties has a different outlook on the other. The speaker sees the urn as ignorant to the way of the world, while the urn sees the speaker not understanding the secrets that life holds. That is what the poem tries to illustrate when it says, “’Beauty is truth, truth beauty,’�that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know” (v. 4-50). In other words let there be art for art’s sake, the Grecian Urn paints a picture, but it does not necessarily need to have a purpose. The underlying fact the urn presents is that life does hold many

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secrets. This quote may be a reminder of “negative capability,” being able to look at the mysteries of life and to be content having them unanswered. At the beginning of the poem, the speaker is almost interrogating the urn, asking question after question, but by the end of the poem the speaker is ok with not having all of the answers to his questions, or to life. He realizes that by not having the questions answered he has actually answered them himself. The speaker concludes that the beauty of life is everywhere, and people should make an effort to understand this; maybe that is where the truth will be found.



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Monday, April 8, 2013

Hamlet

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hamlets father, king of Denmark died. Hamlet hears that his fathers ghost is still living in the castle. his mother has married the ghosts brother. This is a play of jealousy, revenge, and murder.

CLaudius who is the new husband of the queen wants to kill Hamlet when he finds out that he knows he poisoned his father.

asjdkljasdlksanhdkjsaclmkdsajd askldjasijd sakjdaksld kajdsøadsiorun iasjdnhcfdigt luiahrasudfjk lkasdlauiew jaierjaklsdj akshfduiegfb alksuaeøoi aoihdf alsiuyeaha kkk øsalkd iausdkj skldayr iuela ksay hsyej leuyshj ke hjeøa jeyahdn hjeh ksueks heyshnd heakls heagbd geaer ig ie id rtge nabt hareaks ub tgus wirs skjadlkjhs hdgfds saghte sgjabdh kaljsdg shlgaegd jshe gelas hges jge bejs gsla heg ks hel hslen hesls helalu had høay usaø nap gah heald once upson a time in a small red forest laid a kink hanmed odija. he was very poweful and hated evertyuhgn that had to do with money. the king hasd a bealyyurful daughters that he wanted tto get married but he couldnt seem ot find hte perfect men so he put out a notive in the newsappaer they had at the time. so many men showed up at the door they didnt know what to do. the pirtinvedd woulfny laugh so they had to fine da man who wuold make hjer smiløe. this wesnt that east. many many men came to the door but no one made her laugh. the kind was getting restless and had to find someone for her what he didnt know wat that brothers were on theor way to see her. one of the brothers the youngest of course had this thing for picking up everything he saw on the street. he dound a dead frog, a sole o a shoe, even a nut he picked up. the brothers kept walking and walking until they finally came to the castle. haleds jehd nsoiejm jeyenm uasi jshand kaijn habdne jladhen heayhnd.



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Friday, March 22, 2013

scrapt book- teens

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What do you Most/Least like about your age?

Its not easy being a teen. Although I feel like an adult and wish to be more independent, my family and friends often treat me as if I were still a kid. The pressure of school and other responsibilities is there all the time as I begin to seriously think about what the future may hold.

There are many things I like and dislike about being a teenager. Some of my dislikes may include how someone is always watching you in a certain way just because you are a teen. For example one Saturdays night, my friends and I had walked into a supermarket. As we were walking around we noticed someone was watching/following us in the store. So we got kind of scared and started to walk toward the other side of the alie. But one of my friends had confronted him and asked him why he was following us. He answers and told us that it was his job to make sure nobody steals in the store. Then he asked him why he was following us, he said that teens are main people that steal in the store. I thought that was so stereotypical of him to say. Just because some teens steal that doesn’t mean that all teens steal. Another dislike I have about being a teen is that if a teen ever does anything out of the ordinary people blame that behavior on the jumping hormones teens have in their bodies. This is also very stereotypical because if some is in there teen years and are very hyper they blame it on the hormones. But if someone is at the ages from 4-10 year old and is hyper they blame it on age.

Being a teen is not always bad it sometimes have there advantages. For example it is the stage before my adult years and is the only time I have to do anything fun and adventurous before becoming in my eyes I an adult. In my eyes I think adults, like my parents, are very corny but when I grow up I would think differently because I will be one of them. Some other thinks I like about my teen life is that the relationship I have with girls. When you are a teen I think relationships are not really as important as when you grow up. So I think that it is a time when you have good convocations and start to have a sex life.

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There are many people responsible for a teenager’s behavior. It is not only parent, it could be teen’s friends, brothers, sister or it could even be a stranger (role model). Parents are one of the major ones. I feel this way because a teen closest or the person they had now the most is their parent. There are many things. A parent can influence on their child and not even know it. For example if a parent j-walks every times he / her cross the street the child might also j-walk when they are with the friends. Another example is if a parent smokes and a child grows up to think that smoking is O.K. Friend do the same if one of the friends smoke. He would say

“Just try it once”. Peer pressure and they would do it. So in conclusion parents are not the only people who interest teens.

If a teen does something illegal I strongly believe the parent should not get punish. I feel this way because why should the parent get punish a teen does something illegal. I understand that a parent is responsible for the child until they turn 18 but I disagree with that because why should someone get punished for someone else problems. For example do you think it is fair if you teen, son tell a man is it fair for the parent to go to jail? I also think that a parent has no control over their son or daughter at the teen age.





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Henry V

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This poster is for a contemporary screen play of Henry V, originally written by William Shakespeare.

The title of Henry V is in large print and bold to show a dominance and power. It also is eye-catching and stands out from the rest, which is figurative of King Henry’s representation in the text, and therefore film as the ideal king. The red shadowing behind these words is representative of the blood spilled on both sides during the war, particularly of those who died in Henry’s name.

As well as this, a reference is made to the fact that it is one of Shakespeare’s plays. To me this is important as Shakespeare does need to be credited and recognized for his incredible work.

In the background of the main images, covering the whole poster, is the image of the English flag. This is to represent the overwhelming patriotism of the English soldiers for their country and their King.

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The sword has a double meaning, one more obvious then the other. The first is to represent the war, the fighting and death. The second is religious, as it is in the shape of a cross, an important Christian symbol. This is included because, the church / bishops have a very influential role in guiding King Henry in his decisions, the most significant being the decision of going to war against France to claim back the land that was rightfully his, as he was told by the bishop of Canterbury in Act1 scene. The symbol of the cross is also significant as a part of being a good king was being Christian, which Henry was.

The crown symbolizes Henry’s authority and responsibility as king. As the king he has an enormous amount of power, he is not selfish with it, but does use it wisely.

The eagle featured in the bottom section of the poster is representative of the majestical power of King Henry V and his small, but strong army. They come together as one unit to fight against the French army, who are in larger numbers then they were. The English beat all odds to defeat their enemy, truly acting as one, like a swift eagle, as opposed to a number of individuals.

“He that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother” is from the Saint Crispins Day speech said by King Henry V before the battle at Agincourt (Act 4, scene , lines 61-6). In this rally to his troops to help boost their morale, he tells then that he is at the same level as all of them. That they are all equals in the eyes of Henry, and the eyes of God.

Please note that this sample paper on Henry V is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Henry V, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Henry V will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, February 18, 2013

im no good at this

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i reallly dont like writing essays so here i am asking fo your help to give me some i ideas. All i know is three things for essay writing.

To make your essay effective it is neccesary to have a catchy opening. You need to list what you are writing about what points you are going to cover and how it relates to the topic itself.

Secondly, you need a body. This is paragraphs reffering to the points you made in the introduction. In each paragraph you mus remember the SEX rule.

Statement

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Explanation

eXamples

This gives meaning to your essay and discusses and explains your topic effectively.

Lastly, you must include a conclusion which should wrap up the essay. This could be done effectively by a short, sharp sentence at the end or reffering to what you have just explained. Make sure it does wrap up because you dont want to leave your essay open

So thats all i know and because this is so crap you probably know by now i need your help. I hope thats correct for essay writing otherwise im just totally lost.

because i have to add words here we go so yeah i think this is an excellent websit , its got everything because im from new zealand they would consider this as cheating but all i really want is some ideas for my end of year exams for goodness sakes is that too much to ask. And now i have to write an essay which is my exact problem! thanks guys i really appreciate that.anyway teachers arent very advising when it comes to the actual writin i mean they miss heaps of minor details. What am I supposed to do for goodness sakes. i dont care if you dismiss cuz i only want to look at one essay for sum advice but this site dus seem handy. meanwhile ill go now.

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Thursday, January 24, 2013

You will

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Socioeconomic status

Students from economically disadvantaged homes are among the most underserved students in gifted programs. Kids from the bottom quartile in family income made up less than 10 percent of students in gifted programs. In contrast to this finding, almost 50 percent of gifted program participants were from the top income quartile (Sherman, 17). It was not that there are less gifted individuals from low income homes versus high income homes or that African Americans do not have as many gifted individuals than the corresponding white Anglo Saxon Americans, but rather that these populations were not discovered, recognized, or identified as gifted nearly as often as the middle/upper class of the white population (Sherman, 17). Again, it needs to be pointed out that many underachieving gifted students are considered high risk because of situational factors that put them in a class that would be considered a double or even triple minority, such as an African American gifted girl from inner city Harlem.

Single Parent Homes

The third factor which often goes hand in hand with low socioeconomic status is that of the single parent home. Gifted children from single parent homes tend to underachieve at a much higher rate than gifted students from two parent households. Students who achieve at or above ability level usually have parents who are highly involved and on top of their child’s progress and school performance. The parent-child relationship tends to be one of trust and open communication and the parents are confident in their parenting abilities as well as are monumental in setting realistic boundaries and expectations for their child (Ford/Thomas, 17). It is not that single parents love their children any less or care any less about their school performance, however, single parents tend to be stretched a little thinner than their two parent home counterparts in that most hold at least one full time job and life becomes an endless series of trying to make ends meet and fulfill everyday obligations and the focus on the child becomes secondary to the basic needs of life. Especially where a gifted child is concerned, parental concern and involvement, in both educational and social settings, is a must to help the child grow and develop into a successful, achieving adult (Ford/Thomas, 17).

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In single parent households there is only one person to be the caretaker, breadwinner, and emotional supporter. With the stressful lives of many households today, the emotional needs of many children are not completely or fully met. Hence, we have a generation of stressed out children. These stresses are common in many two parent, two income households, so the stress of a single parent, one income household is capitalized to a great extent. Under involved and nonencouraging parents, negative parental attitudes, family conflict, lack of career direction, and family transitions were all found to be associated with underachievement (Peterson, 001). The underachievement becomes a vicious cycle in which it stops being apparent which came first, the underachievement or the family conflicts. It is most certain, however, that if a child is underachieving and there are many other pressing family issues, than the underachieving might very well take a backseat to the major family dysfunctions. Not only do single parent homes have more potential towards stressful lives, but the factors that have led to the single parenting often come into play. For instance, a child may be from a middle class, two parent home when circumstances change such as a divorce or death, and then the child is living in a single parent, low income home. Such drastic changes are hard for the parent and child alike and if the emotional health is not dealt with immediately and properly, a child stands a high chance of becoming depressed and as grades and school work begin to suffer, becoming what is labeled as a “gifted underachiever” (Whitmore, 180). These gifted underachievers are thought to turn out as relatively nonproductive members of the adult society. “The failure of those children to realize their creative and intellectual potential represents a tragic loss to our society and the world in its need for leadership, innovation, and competence (Whitmore, 180).

Underachievers

Children and adults alike achieve at various rates for a variety of reasons as mentioned above. There are many born with many strikes against them, including a low mentality, yet they achieve at a higher rate than what would be expected, and thus are known as “overachievers”. We tend to call those who fall into the perfectionist category as overachievers as well. We often marvel at the accomplishments of the low ability overachiever in much the same sense that we marvel at the normal achievement of a gifted individual. In reality, if the majority of the gifted population were to achieve at his/her ability level, the possibilities are endless (Raph, Goldberg, & Passow, 166).

We cannot ignore that the majority of the gifted underachievers have one or more contributing, identifiable factors. These factors can usually be traced to minority, low socioeconomic status, and single parent homes. Indeed, it cannot be ignored either, that the prisons and juvenile systems are laden with gifted, talented, and creative individuals who use their abilities in unique ways that cause a detrimental effect on society rather than a positive contribution to society. A waste of the mind in this manner is not only a shame, but a loss to society. Had some of these individuals used their masterful minds in more meaningful ways, would there be a cure for cancer, AIDS, diabetes, or perhaps other diseases by now? Gifted individuals have the same basic needs that all people have, however, the gifted child has a unique imbalance created by an intellectual level that is usually functioning at a much higher level than his/her emotional level and when this is coupled with influencing factors, the gifted mind often reacts by shutting down or moving into a lower gear and not performing at his/her capability level (Whitmore, 180). In addition, gifted children are often expected to perform near perfection on all academic and creative tasks. They are often expected to behave in a certain manner also and if a child falls short in one or more of these areas, typical comments include “he can’t be gifted with behavior like that” or “she has poor spelling and terrible handwriting, how did she get in the gifted program?” When a child hears comments such as these, in addition to comments about the underachievement, it often makes the child question his or her giftedness as well (Coleman & Cross, 001).

In some cases it might actually be hard to define which came first, the negative comments which compound the underachievement or the underachievement which invites the negative comments. Children from disadvantaged homes are often overlooked for the gifted programs anyway and hearing comments that stereotype what a gifted child should act, look, feel, or be like is quite a burden on a child with several strikes against him/her to begin with. Indeed, even when most people think of a gifted person or a person with genius, what comes to mind is a slightly odd, white male child, usually small in stature with glasses. The idea of a gifted adult usually is a picture of someone who is somewhat eccentric and usually a loner working in a laboratory or some other research type environment. With these stereotypes, it is not a surprising coincidence that the majority of those who are overlooked for the gifted programs and those who tend to underachieve are females, ethnic minorities, and those from low income households that do not fit the stereotypical mold of the gifted child from the mid to upper class American family. The issues of underachievement and why it occurs are just now being truly brought to the forefront and steps to remedy the underachievement are being researched and strategies taken to reverse this unnecessary phenomena (Coleman & Cross, 001). Perhaps in the not too distant future, children of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds will be adequately identified and represented in the gifted population, as well as implementations to reverse underachievement and utilize the true gifts of this underrepresented population.

Remedies and strategies

Remedies to reverse underachievement can be utilized and help the underachieving gifted student reach his/her full potential. The role of the family is a big and constant issue in achievement. Due to the complexity of factors associated with broken homes and low income, there is a sizable portion of able students who are at risk for not maximizing their potential during their years in secondary school and beyond (VanTassel-Baska, 18). First of all, it has been determined that perhaps individuals and institutions other than the family may play more significant roles in these students’ lives. If the family is disadvantaged due to economic hardship, single parenting, or minority influences, there are other individuals and institutions that can perhaps fill this void for these disadvantaged youngsters (VanTassel-Baska, 18). Of course, individuals closest to the child are going to play the biggest role of influence in the child’s life, but there are others than can be positive, contributing factors.

There is also a way to help the child’s disadvantage work to his or her benefit. Being raised in a low-income home, having only one parent, or being a member of a minority group may be a powerful stimulus for some individuals to succeed beyond expectations for their socioeconomic level in society (VanTassel-Baska, 18). There are many individuals that have overcome many obstacles in their lives and achieved at a rate and to a degree above and beyond expectations. The world is full of gifted scholars, athletes, artists, and musicians who were raised in ghettos with little food or parental support. The difference in what these disadvantaged children have compared to the underachieving disadvantaged child is the inner drive to succeed above and beyond the expected. The desire to not only rise above, but to get out of their present situations is a strong factor for many successful individuals.

In 188, Congress passed legislation to promote the interests of gifted students in U.S. public schools. The Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Program was authorized under Title IV, Part B of the Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary Amendments of 188. The legislation calls for the U.S. Department of Education to carry out three major activities that are designed to provide national leadership in gifted education. The first type provides funding through grants to assist state and local educational agencies in meeting the various needs of gifted students. The second activity is the creation of a national research center on gifted and talented students. The center is the first comprehensive research effort on gifted education in the United States. The third activity responds to the legislative mandate that the Javits Program serve as a national focal point in gifted education. Therefore, it calls for additional and much needed attention to the needs and concerns of gifted children (Ford, 16). These programs, by addressing the issues and needs of disadvantaged gifted children, shed light and hope on reversing the debilitating pattern of underachievement in gifted students. In addition to changing the means of gifted identification in minorities and implementing unique programs for the gifted minorities, it is evident that there is a need to change the teacher attitudes and behaviors toward targeted students and to empower parental input and influence. School partnerships with postsecondary education institutions, community organizations, and business and industry are also important contributing factors in the reversal of underachievement for gifted children (Ford, 16).





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Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Ramzan Festival

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Muslims celebrate the Ramzan festival with great �clat all over the world. The festival is held each year at end of Arabic month of Ramzan. Muslims fast every day during this month and on the completion of the period, which is decided by the appearance of the new moon the next month following Ramzan called Shawal.

The preparation of the festival starts two weeks before the festival day. The women are involved to make different varieties of sweets, among these sweets very famous and delicious sweet is called Vattilappem. All people buy or stitch new cloths; mainly children prepare different models of dresses.

On this day people getup early in the morning and have a bath and wear new and best clothes and go to the mosque for Ramzan festival prayers. After the prayer there is a religious lecture from imam and then they greet and embrace one another warmly. Other religious people also greet and embrace their Muslim friends in fraternal spirit. The whole day is spent in festivity and exchange of sweets, good wishes and visits. The sweet dishes are specially prepared on this occasion and distributed among friends, neighbours and relatives. In the afternoon some sports competition and cultural events take place for children.

It is a great social and religious Muslim festival and the poor and needy are given money, food, clothes etc., in charity. Muslim women and children also celebrate it with great zest and enthusiasm. They wear their fineries, jewellery and apply henna on their feet and hands.

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People wish each other well, uttering “ Ed Mubarak”.



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Tourism Memorandum - Dreamworld theme park in Australia

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Memorandum



To All retail departments, operations, human resources, food and beverage, technical and maintenance, finance, entertainment, entry and crowd control, maintenance and cleaning, ride operation, marketing, administration, accounts, shows and attractions, photographic supervisor, guest services, reception

From Treslynne Dignon � Public Relations & Communications Coordinator

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Date 14/10/0

Subject Australia Day



Please be advised that as part of its 004 new marketing campaign, and with the support of Tourism Queensland, Dreamworld is having a special Australia Day Program on January 6, 004.

Extra entertainment has been provided with special events planned. In addition, Dreamworld will be open at night for a fun-filled celebration. For this special occasion all staff will be required to work and extra duties will be assigned so that visitors can enjoy Dreamworld’s facilities to the utmost.

I have attached a schedule below for your information. I will be contactable on two-way (PR1) and mobile on the day.

Event

Event Australia Day Program

Date January 6, 004

Time 10.00am � 8.0pm

Location At several locations throughout the park

Contact Treslynne Dignon mobile - 041865508

Running order

10.00am Set up of area in Kakadu Caf� with digital camera

10.00am Set up of autograph & photograph area at Main Stage

10.00am Set up of all show areas

10.0am Limo arrives at Dreamworld (Steve Irwin) � Entry Gate

10.45am Limo arrives at Dreamworld (Silverchair) � Entry Gate

10.45am PR will escort Steve Irwin to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

11.00am Outback Adventure Show will commence

11.00am Photograph session (Steve Irwin) in Kakadu Caf� with DW patrons

11.00am PR will escort Silverchair to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

11.15am Kakadu Wetlands show feat. Steve Irwin with the crocs

11.15am Photograph session (Silverchair) at Main Stage

11.0am Australian Farm Show will commence

11.45am Tiger Island specialty show feat. Steve Irwin

1 noon Silverchair perform at Main Stage

1.15pm Kakadu Wetlands show feat. Steve Irwin with the crocs

1.0pm Autograph session (Silverchair)

1.45pm PR will escort Steve Irwin to Kakadu Caf�

1.00pm PR will escort Silverchair to Buffet Restaurant

1.00pm Outback Adventure Show will commence

1.0pm Australian Farm Show will commence

.00pm Limo arrives at Dreamworld (Wiggles) � Entry Gate

.00pm PR will escort Steve Irwin to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

.15pm Limo transfer back to hotel (Steve Irwin)

.15pm PR will escort Silverchair to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

.0pm Limo transfer back to hotel (Silverchair)

.0pm PR will escort the Wiggles to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

.45pm PR will escort the Wiggles to Nickelodeon Central

.00pm Outback Adventure Show will commence

.00pm Photograph session (Wiggles)

.0pm Australian Farm Show will commence

.0pm Wiggles perform at Nickelodeon Central

4.00pm Limo arrives at Dreamworld (Beau Brady, Bec Cartwright) � Entry Gate

4.00pm PR will escort the Wiggles to Catdog Snack Shack

4.15pm PR will escort Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright to Kenny Cab for a run through the park

4.0pm PR will escort Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright to Sunset Safari

4.45pm PR will escort the Wiggles to Nickelodeon Central

4.45pm Sunset Safari will commence feat. Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright

5.00pm Outback Adventure Show will commence

5.00pm Wiggles perform at Nickelodeon Central

5.15pm Sunset Safari will commence feat. Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright

5.0pm Australian Farm Show will commence

5.0pm Limo transfer back to hotel (Wiggles)

5.45pm Sunset Safari will commence feat. Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright

6.00pm Fireworks commence at Nickelodeon Central

6.15pm Sunset Safari will commence feat. Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright

6.45pm Sunset Safari will commence feat. Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright

7.15pm PR will escort Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright to Main Stage

7.0pm Photograph session (Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright)

7.45pm Autograph session (Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright)

8.00pm Fireworks commence at Nickelodeon Central

8.0pm Limo transfer back to hotel (Beau Brady & Bec Cartwright)

8.0pm Ends

Can I please ask your assistance with the following

E&A

Are we able to use the Kenny Cab (with driver) for a short 10 minute spin with

each of the celebrities around the park (as per schedule)? Also, if you have a

supervisor you can spare to help with crowd control that would be appreciated.

Guest Services

As per our discussions, please UP SELL the Australia Day Program and guest

appearances to all park guests between now and the event.

Imogen

As per our earlier conversation, can we order limo transfers to and from

Dreamworld as per the above schedule? Pick up address details will be provided

verbally.

Photographic Supervisor

Can we please ensure sufficient people are rostered on to help with this event?

The set up should be done before 1015am because guests start arriving fairly

early. Make sure to set up all photograph, autograph and performance areas.

Retail

Can all staff mention the Australia Day Program and guest appearances?

Information flyers have been distributed.

Security

Can we please organize security guards to duty for the duration of the guest

appearances?

If you have any problems or concerns please don’t hesitate to contact me on

041865508.

Kind regards,

Treslynne Dignon

Public Relations & Communications Coordinator





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Tuesday, January 22, 2013

¡°She was forced to write that way¡­¡±

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Sylvia Plath, a talented American poetess, published her first poem when she was only eight. Her major success laid in the publishing of The Colossus-a series of poems by Plath-along with various other infamous poems (Brennan 15). Many critics were delighted of her use of proper techniques and considered it to be enjoyable for most intelligent readers and other poetry lovers of the like (Brennan 15). Plath lived a turbulent life; she expresses most of her pain in her work. This is especially evident in her poetry in Ariel, which is a collection of the poems published after her death, which she had written in the last five years of her life, before her suicide in 16 (Wagner-Martin 11). She is said to have made art from the crucial issues of her life, Wagner-Martin mentions that ¡°Plath has voiced anger as well as hope and she spoke of sorrow as well as joy¡± (11). Sylvia Plath¡¯s father died when she was young, however she never mourned for his death until a while after, which is evident in some of her poems about fathers and fatherhood. Plath was married to another famous poet, Ted Hughes, although Plath considered Hughes to be her ¡°ideal¡±, she soon became exhausted by the relationship for not only did she take on the role of a wife; she also became Hughes¡¯ business manager (Chapman ). The marriage between Plath and Hughes soon ended with outbursts of jealousy; Plath had discovered that Hughes was having an affair with another poet¡¯s wife (Chapman 7). Some of the finest poems she¡¯s ever written developed out of the pain and anguish, which she was feeling and then published in Ariel after her death (Chapman 7). To many readers, whether they¡¯ve studied Plath¡¯s work or not, would consider Plath¡¯s work to be self-therapy. Poems of darkness and emotional buildup, however what one should not rule out is the work that Plath has written for children or about children, for example The Bed Book. Although Plath has led a tumultuous life, not all her works surround the depressive occurrences in her life; it may be that her best work was developed during her pain staking trials, however there is no evidence that Sylvia Plath was only confined to her raw emotional works of poetry. Sylvia Plath¡¯s emotional roller coaster has played an enormous part it her becoming famous for her intense poetry and because of the lifestyle in which she was plagued with, where there were both positive and negative events; she has developed a well-rounded array of poetry. It is also important to note that perhaps without her emotional displays, Plath may not have even gained such fame in the first place. Her work is truly sincere and remarkable. Plath choose to use her most emotional states to her advantage, although she may have not done it intentionally, the world would soon discover the person behind the words.

The Bed Book, a delightful short story about the most imaginable beds has shown Plath¡¯s more delicate side through its simple rhyme and creativity. Noting that ¡°the best beds are much more interesting¡± than ¡°just beds for sleeping and resting¡± (Plath ). Plath has widened children¡¯s imagination by proposing that beds should be submarines, and have pillows of bread and even be pocket-sized. It is curious to note that the book was first published in 176, almost 14 years after her death. Plath had two children of her own and she even wrote some of her poems about them. Chapman mentions that it was in the poems about her children that readers got to see the gentler and more joyous side to Plath (5). Many critics have said that Plath¡¯s work is vivid and displays every aspect of good poetry, along with a sense of disturbance that is balanced throughout the context. Eccentricity in Plath¡¯s work is shown a bit through ¡°Two Views of a Cadaver Room¡± from The Colossus, where she mentions ¡°snail-nosed babies in jars¡± (Plath 10), this is particularly interesting because in her novel, The Bell Jar, she also mentions about preserved babies in jars (Plath 51). In her poem ¡°The Colossus¡±, Sylvia Plath portrays her need or wants to put her father back together

Scaling little ladders with gluepots and pails of Lysol

I crawl like an ant in mourning

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Over the weedy acres of your brow

To mend the immense skull-plates and clear

The bald, white tumuli of your eyes. (11-15)

Through her choice of words and imagery, we see that she is absolutely minute in scale compared to her father. Plath shows herself crawling in the ruins of a huge statue (symbol of her dad) in hopes to repair it. It allows the readers to get a greater sense of how much Plath yearned for her father to come back and undo the injustice in which he had laid with the event of his death (Wagner-Martin 165). Plath labels the statue as an oracle, which is the source of wisdom she desperately needs, however can¡¯t understand (Wagner-Martin 166). It was twenty years after the death of Otto Plath, which Plath began to mourn for him. She was seeing her therapist for depression at the time and it was then in which she wrote what may be her most famous poem yet, ¡°Daddy¡±. In the poem she compares her father to a Nazi, a vampire and even a devil ¡°I thought every German was you/and the language obscene/an engine, an engine/chuffing me off like a Jew¡± and ¡°Panzer-man, panzer-man, O you/not god but a swastika/so black no sky could squeak through¡±. At the end of the poem, Plath ends with

There¡¯s a stake in your fat black heart

And the villagers never liked you.

They are dancing and stamping on you.

They always knew it was you.

Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I¡¯m through. (76-80)

In this shocking poem, Plath has showed her audience the true sense of anguish she felt about her father dying; she is also known to have seen her father¡¯s death as his ¡°desertion¡± from her (Chapman 11). Sylvia Plath was extremely good at putting her feelings into her work, although some of her poems that appear in Ariel, which may not have been meant to be seen, proves that Plath¡¯s emotions were real, thus incorporating it into her poetry would in no doubt welcome her poetic sympathized readers.

Sylvia Plath had a regular childhood; she was well cared for and loved. Plath loved visits to the ocean and was very observative (Wagner-Martin 16), perhaps that explains the detailedness in some of her work. Sylvia Plath¡¯s parents had good intentions for raising their daughter, however there is a mysterious wonderment to why Plath would later develop such an intriguing lifestyle. Perhaps it was because of Plath¡¯s mother, who was very good at making up stories to tell young Sylvia and her brother (Wagner-Martin 17) or maybe her dad, who¡¯s motto for raising his children was, as Wagner-Martin mentions ¡°to involve the children in his life, rather than becoming a part of their lives¡± (4). It is also said that Otto may have even treated Plath as a miniature wife (Wagner-Martin 4). Whether it was because of the parenting styles of her guardians, or Plath herself, it was definitely apparent that Plath was lacking some emotional attention. Wagner-Martin explains that Plath¡¯s mother confused the children by not showing any grief herself after the death of her husband, thus the children had no role model for their mourning, her mother went so far as to not let her children attend the funeral or the burial (8). One should question whether or not Plath¡¯s poetry about children or her work for children was to show her intentions of a truly happy childhood. By examining the fortunes and misfortunes of Sylvia Plath¡¯s childhood, it is evident that her experiences influence her writing about children. For example in her poem ¡°Balloons¡±, she seems to have mentioned her children playing with pink balloons

Your small



Brother is making

His balloon squeak like a cat.

Seeming to see

A funny pink world he might eat on the other side of it,

He bites,



Then sits

Back, fat jug

Contemplating a world as clear as water,

A red

Shred in his little fist. (0-0)

Here Plath shows the simplicity and beauty in how a child sees the world. Compared to some other poems, for example ¡°Edge¡±-which was thought to have been written during the planning of her suicide-has a much more calmer and whimsical touch to it. It is particular to note that in her poem, ¡°Edge¡±, she says that ¡°We have come so far, it is over.¡± however in reality it is just the beginning of her fame and legend. It is said that on the day of her suicide, Plath had left cups of milk beside her children¡¯s beds and had put tape around the doors along with stuffed towels underneath to protect the children from the gas (Chapman 41). She then went downstairs and turned on the oven and put her head in (Chapman 41). In her poem ¡°Edge¡±, it is as follows near the middle

Each dead child coiled, a white serpent,

One at each little

Pitcher of milk, now empty.

She has folded (-1).

It shows in her poem that she has thought about the suicide prior to the event, she must have been in an extreme depressive state for a while in order to have thought about the suicide and actually have gone through with it as well. To many the poem is beautiful, yet psychotic. Holbrook mentions how Plath wanted to ¡®fold back¡¯ her children back into herself (71) and this is shown in the poem

She is folded

Them back into her body as petals

Of a rose close when the garden

Stiffens and odors bleed

From the sweet, deep throats of the night flower. (1-16)

Holbrook suggests that it is giving sweetness, here implying that the rose closes on itself, as the garden (body) ¡°stiffens¡± and her children is folded back into her body (7). This poem is by far the most emotionally raw of Sylvia Plath¡¯s work.

Sylvia Plath was very dedicated to her work. Throughout her education as a student, she received a lot of straight-A¡¯s and always prioritized her work first. Chapman explains how when Plath married Hughes, she was willing to conform to society¡¯s expectations for a woman in the 150¡¯s, but only up to a certain point; she would not abandon her own goals and ambitions, which at that time of course was her writing (6). Plath was an intelligent writer, like many, she wrote about the things she cared the most about her emotional ups and downs, her love for her children and she even wrote politically (Wagner-Martin 11). Plath cared intensely about the arms race, nuclear power, and people¡¯s injustice to others (Wagner-Martin 11). Sylvia Plath did write about everything, thus making her a well-rounded writer. In her novel, The Bell Jar, Plath chooses the main narrator, Esther to be under going a ¡°rebirth¡±, having a clean start, which was at that time (spring of 161) to have been the goal of Plath herself (Wagner-Martin 187). In many aspects, the novel corresponds to Sylvia Plath¡¯s life, however Sylvia Plath has not said that it was about her, readers can see through some of the context that the main character in The Bell Jar and herself are fairly similar. It definitely seems to some degree that The Bell Jar was a story about Plath herself. Writers often write to leave a legend, or to cast down values and beliefs onto future generation readers, for Sylvia Plath, her sense of immortality really grew after her death. Sylvia Plath taught herself how to write brilliantly and it is through this kind of pure talent that readers seek freedom of expression and thought. The most intriguing subject matter that readers discover in Plath¡¯s work is her constant struggle with body and mind. Plath was an extremely intelligent person, however her actions do not speak in that manner. With her poetic words readers can see the progress and development of Plath as a person as well as a writer. For in the end, her struggle leads her to end her life, however she has surrendered her most intimate thoughts and processes for others to discover. Perhaps in hopes to help others understand better the state of existence or simply yet, to have a better understanding of herself.

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The Photographic Essay (Mitchell)

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“The text of the photo-essay typically discloses a certain reserve or modesty in its claim to “speak for” or interpret the images; like the photograph, it admits its inability to appropriate everything that was there to be taken and tries to let the photographs speak for themselves or “look back” at the viewer”(516). In being told to take a position on this very controversial issue, I didn’t know whether I agreed, disagreed, or both with W.J.T Mitchell’s claim that photographs not accompanied by text speak louder than photographs with text accompaniment. Many photographs are accompanied by text or some type of explanation as to what the photograph is about or the story behind it (e.g. museums and art exhibitions), because of this Mitchell’s claim would often be looked at as wrong and would arouse many controversial and argumentative questions. When you take a closer look and give deeper thought to the claim you will notice that it is very true and I totally agree with Mitchell. I think Mitchell’s claim can be best understood from James Agee and Walker Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. I agree with Mitchell in his views that photographs with no text allows for a deeper understanding of the photo, for you to link the text and image with your own understanding and that text limits the “reading” of the photograph.

An in-depth understanding of a photograph is the ability to look at what is there and to also look past what is there. What do you think the person in the photograph is going through? What does it represent? How can the photograph relate to you, your life and your experiences? I think that these are just a few questions that should be asked and answered when trying to “read” or gain an understanding of a photograph (your own understanding). Agee and Evans try to get this point across by not providing text with the images so your “reading” of the photograph will not be hindered by text that could and would influence your thought. As Mitchell states, “The photographs are completely separate, not only from Agee’s text, but from any of the most minimal textual features that conventionally accompany a photo-essay no captions, legends, dates, names, locations, or even numbers are provided to assist a “reading” of the photographs”(517). In not providing any of these things Evans and Agee make it hard to connect the photographs with the text “ it resists the straightforward collaboration of photo and text”(51). I think this resistance is needed and very essential when trying to fully “read” a photograph and understand it.

Personal associations are essential when trying to link photo and text. Because this collaboration is so difficult to achieve the only thing left to do is to try to link them by relating them to one’s self and life and also looking at the details of the photograph (e.g. facial expressions, clothing, etc.) and coming up with you own understanding or “reading” of them. As Mitchell states, “ The second is the intimate fellowship between the informal or personal essay, with its emphasis on a private “point of view”, memory, and autobiography, and photography’s mythic status as a kind of materialized memory trace imbedded in the context of personal associations and private “perspectives””(516). What Mitchell likes and what Agee and Evans focus is, is to try and achieve this “reading” without being invasive or intrusive. Many would probably argue that even in trying to let the pictures speak for themselves, the reader would become invasive and intrusive. Although this is true, Agee and Evans try to undercut surveillance by not providing text with the image, which would be totally invasive and intrusive for them to try and explain these people’s lives. Evans, Agee and Mitchell believe in no categorizing, pigeonholing, labeling, or judging. As Mitchell states, “what gives us the right to look upon her, as if we were God’s spies”(5). I think the resistance of Agee’s text and Evans images are meant to deliberately prevent easy collaboration, therefore the linking of image and text is extremely difficult but is not meant to be linked but to stand alone as separate “readings”.

What if we were looking at photos with text accompaniment? Would we then be able to fully “read” the photograph? No, the text would strongly influence our thought when trying to understand and relate to the photograph. Mitchell states that “ there is the root sense of the essay as a partial, incomplete “attempt”, an effort to get as much of the truth about something into its brief compass as the limits of space and writerly ingenuity will allow. Photographs, similarly, seem necessarily incomplete in their imposition of a frame that can never include everything that was there to be, as we say, “taken””(516). I really like that fact that in Agee and Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men they have the photographs in the front without context and when the reader or viewer finally does get to the words or text they are in “Book Two”, meaning the photos were “Book One” and they have already “read” them. I also like the fact that Agee and Evans allowed their photographic subjects to pose themselves. I think that photos with text accompaniment limits the “reading” of the photograph and also hinders the “reader’s” creativity and critical thinking process.

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In conclusion, “ The “taking” of human subjects by a photographer (or a writer) is a concrete social encounter, often between a damaged, victimized, and powerless individual and a relatively privileged observer, often acting as the “eye of power”, the agent of some social, political, or journalistic institution. The “use” of this person as instrumental subject matter in a code of photographic messages is exactly what links the political aim with the ethical, creating exchanges and resistances at the level of value that do not concern the photographer alone, but which reflect back on the writer’s (relatively invisible) relation to the subject as well and on the exchanges between writer and photographer”(515). There is a clear imbalance of power here and I agree with Mitchell because I believe that his theory or views on photographs and text tries to cut back on this imbalance of power.



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